#011 – FERNANDO ZAMOLA: The Croatian Question in the Late Habsburg Empire and the road to a Yugoslav state


(Victoria Matteucci, “Zastave”, 2012)


A discussion on nationalism, loyalties in flux and state formation. The Croatian question was one of the most debated issues in the process of reorganization and devolution of state power in the Habsburg Monarchy in the late 19th and early 20th century. We approach it by analyzing the discussions, projects and ideologies of politicians based in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, which were embedded in a larger “Southern Slavs question”  as well as in the political structures of the Kingdom of Hungary, to which these lands belonged, and into the fate of the Empire in general. Thus, the narrative offers an example of how to reframe nation building and state formation through a lens that downplays determinism and continuities. Instead, the eventual inclusion of Croatia and Slavonia into the newborn Yugoslav Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was the result of a rapidly changing international order and ruptures in the discourse of state legitimacy.

Fernando Zamola is a Lecturer and Research Fellow at the Chair of South-East European History at the Humboldt University in Berlin. His research interests include the history of Austria-Hungary, nationalism and international relations, and state creation as a problem of international history. He enjoys skiing, walking in the mountains, cooking and spending time with his family and friends. Fernando is the author of The Politics of Croatia-Slavonia 1903-1918. Nationalism, State Allegiance and the Changing International Order.

To cite this episode: Zamola, Fernando; Guidi, Andreas (2016): The Croatian Question in the late Habsburg Empire and the road to a Yugoslav state, The Southeast Passage #011, 01.12.2016, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/zamola-croatian-question-habsburg-empire-yugoslav-state


Further reading:

Banac, Ivo (1984): The national question in Yugoslavia. Origins, history, politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Banac, Ivo (1992): “Emperor Karl has become a Comitadji”: the Croatian Disturbances of Autumm 1918. In Slavonic and East European Review 70 (2), pp. 284–305.

Biondich, Mark (2000): Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant Party, and the politics of mass mobilization, 1904-1928. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

Cornwall, Mark (Ed.) (2002): The last years of Austria-Hungary. A multi-national experiment in early twentieth-century Europe. Rev. and expanded. Exeter: Univ. of Exeter Press (Exeter studies in history).

Djokić, Dejan (2007): Elusive compromise : a history of interwar Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press.

Judson, Pieter M. (2016): The Habsburg empire. A new history. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Mayall, James (1990): Nationalism and international society. Cambridge [England], New York: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in international relations, 10).

Özkırımlı, Umut (2010): Theories of nationalism. A critical introduction. 2nd ed. Basingstoke, Hampshire [England], New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Promitzer, Christian (2003): The South Slavs in the Austrian Imagination. Serbs and Slovenes in the Changing View from German Nationalism to National Socialism. In Nancy M. Wingfield (Ed.): Creating the other. Ethnic conflict and nationalism in Habsburg Central Europe. New York: Berghahn Books (Austrian history, culture & society, v. 5), pp. 183–215.


Map of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia as a part of the Habsburg Empire, 1915


Two issues of “Novosti”, printed in Zagreb. Left: “Long live the Croatian King Franz Joseph the First” (18 August 1915). Right: “Long live the Karadjordjevic Dynasty (6 December 1918)

#010 – NICOLE IMMIG: Muslims in Greece between Empire and Nation State: The Case of Thessaly and Arta, 1878-1897


In this installment we approach the strategies of integration and mobility of Muslims after the end of Ottoman rule in Thessaly and Arta. The shift from imperial to national province implied new challenges and costraints for the Muslim population that has left only a few traces in those areas. However, these territories also offer a privileged angle to question the dominant narrative of intolerance, ethnic cleansing and immediate forced displacement in late 19th and early 20th century Balkans. Pragmatism both on the side of the authorities and Muslim citizens seems to have prevailed in many regards, from public commemorations to judiciary cases to the preservation of the architectural heritage. The episode was recorded during the conference “Balkan Worlds III: Power Networks in the Imperial and Post-Imperial Balkans”, Thessaloniki 06-08.10.2016.


Nicole Immig is a postdoctoral researcher at the Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena. She is interested in Historical Migrations in the Balkans, Visual History, Heritage Studies and the Cultural History of World War One  in South Eastern Europe. She loves travelling, hiking tours in the Balkan mountains and long coffee talks. Currently she is preparing a new research project on the cultural and visual  history of the Balkan Front in World War One. Nicole is the author of the monograph “Zwischen Partizipation und Emigration.  Muslime in Griechenland 1878-1897”, published by Harrassowitz.

To cite this episode: Immig, Nicole; Guidi, Andreas (2016): Muslims in Greece between Empire and Nation State: The Case of Thessaly and Arta, 1878-1897, The Southeast Passage #010, 14.11.2016, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/immig-muslims-greece-thessaly


Further reading:

Höpken, Wolfgang: Flucht vor dem Kreuz? Muslimische Emigration aus Südosteuropa nach dem Ende der osmanischen Herrschaft (19./20. Jahrhundert), in: Höpken, Wolfgang (Hrsg.), Zwangsmigrationen in Mittel- und Südosteuropa, Comparativ 8 (1996), 1-24.

Immig, Nicole: Der Staat und seine „Neubürger“: Territoriale Erweiterung und muslimische Minderheiten in Griechenland im 19. Jahrhundert, in: Ganzenmüller, Jörg/Tönsmeyer, Tanja (Hrsg.), Vom Vorrücken des Staates in die Fläche. Ein europäisches Phänomen des langen 19. Jahrhunderts, Böhlau, Köln 2016, 81-110.

Immig, Nicole: Ottoman Past, National Discourses on Muslim Populations and their Architectural Legacy in Arta and Thessaly, in: Stamatopoulos, Dimitris (Hrsg.), Balkan Nationalism(s) and the Ottoman Empire, Bd. 1, ISIS, Istanbul 2015, 143-158.

Immig, Nicole: The „New“ Muslim Minorities in Greece: Between Emigration and Political Participation, 1881 – 1886, in: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 29, 4 (2009), 511-522.

Mazower, Mark: Salonika, CIty of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950, New York, Harper Collins 2004.  (Quoted in the introduction).

Sfika-Theodosiou, Angeliki, I Prosartisi tis Thessalias. I proti fasi stin ensomatosi mias ellinikis eparchias sto Elliniko Kratos, Thessaloniki 1989.

Sundhaussen, Holm, Geschichte Südosteuropas als Migrationsgeschichte: Eine Skizze, in: Südostforschungen 65/66 (2006/2007), 422-460.

Toumarkine, Alexandre: Les migrations des populations musulmanes balkaniques en Anatolie (1876-1913), ISIS, Istanbul 1995 (Cahiers du Bosphore 13).

Vierhaus, Rudolf, Die Rekonstruktion historischer Lebenswelten, in: Lehmann, Hartmut (Hrsg.), Wege einer neuen Kulturgeschichte, Wallstein, Göttingen 1995, 6-28.



German copy of a French map of Thessaly and its border area from 1879


Cover of the newspaper “Salpigx” from Larissa, 1883. The article in the left column reads “Electoral Parties of Larissa”