#024 – Kemalism and the Making of Modern Turkey

With Erik-Jan Zürcher

 

SPECIAL EPISODE IN COOPERATION WITH “OTTOMAN HISTORY PODCAST” 

Cover of the revue published in French“La Turquie Kamaliste” used in 1935 and 1936

In this episode, we discuss the emergence of the Turkish nationalist movement under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the establishment of a sovereign Republic of Turkey in 1923. As our guest Prof. Erik-Jan Zürcher notes, Kemalism can be studied both as a political transformation from armed struggle to a one-party state administration system and as a repertoire of discursive symbols based on the imaginary of nation, civilization, and modernity. This installment is structured along a series of lectures that Prof. Zürcher has given at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, in which he has framed Kemalism’s activism and worldview within its contemporary international context as well as along a broader chronological axis continuing into the 1950s.

 

Erik Jan Zürcher is Professor of Turkish Studies at the University of Leiden. He has published widely on the period of transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey from the point of view of social, economic, and political history. Professor Zürcher is also a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Hosted by Andreas Guidi and Elif Becan.

To cite this episode: Zürcher, Erik Jan; Guidi, Andreas; Becan, Elif (2017): Kemalism and the making of modern Turkey, The Southeast Passage #024, 06.07.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/zurcher-kemalism-making-modern-turkey

 

Music: 

Turku, Nomads of the Silk Road – Ah bir ataş ver (Creative Commons)

 

Further reading:

Georgeon, François (1995): Des Ottomans aux Turcs. Naissance d’une nation. Istanbul: Éd. Isis.

Gingeras, Ryan (2016): The fall of the Sultanate. The Great War and the end of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hanioglu, M. Sukru (2011): Ataturk. An intellectual biography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Meeker, Michael E. (2002): A nation of empire. The Ottoman legacy of Turkish modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Robinson, Richard D. (1963): The First Turkish Republic. A Case Study in National Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rostow, Walt W. (1959): The stages of economic growth. A non-communist manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yilmaz, Hale (2013): Becoming turkish. Nationalist reforms and cultural negotiations in Early Republican Turkey 1923-1945. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Zürcher, Erik Jan (1984): The Unionist factor. The rôle of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement, 1905 – 1926. Leiden: Brill.

Zürcher, Erik Jan (2003): The Young Turks – Children of the borderlands? In International Journal of Turkish Studies 9 (1-2), pp. 275–286.

Zürcher, Erik Jan (2010): The Young Turk legacy and nation building. From the Ottoman Empire to Atatürk’s Turkey. London: I.B. Tauris.

Zürcher, Erik Jan (2017): Turkey. A modern history. Fourth edition, new paperback edition. London, New York: I. B. Tauris.

 

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk delivers a speech for the 10th anniversary of the foundation of the Turkish Republic (October 1933)

Mustafa Kemal meets Henry Franklin-Bouillon, 1921. The French diplomat signed a treaty with the emerging Ankara government which marked the first prominent act of international recognition of the Turkish Nationalist institutions

Peasants waiting for the arrival of Kemalist troops in Edirne, 1923

 

 

#023 – Turkish Labor Unions under AKP Rule

with İşil Erdinç

 

Workers of the DİSK Confederation at the Gezi Park protests. The tag says “Tayyip, this is the beginning of the end”

Since 2002, when the Party of Development and Justice (AKP) seized power in Turkey, the relationship between state institutions and unions has changed toward polarization and fragmentation. The increasing interference of the government in unions’ internal affairs, explicit favoring the pro-AKP unions, has marginalised dissident confederations of workers, while former trans-union shared initiatives and platforms for defending workers’ rights have faded. In this episode, we approach the historical background of this setting in terms of economic and social transformation of Turkey during the last decades. Secondly, some patterns of union activism and the profiles of the actors involved are discussed. Thirdly, we provide an insight into some local configuration that show a limited, yet existing room for resistance against the AKP policies and state interference.

 

Işıl Erdinç is a post-doctoral researcher at Paris Dauphine University. She is one of the coordinators of the research project “Spaces, networks and transfers. The reconfiguration of politics in Turkey”, based at the Institut of Interdisciplinary Research in Social Sciences (IRISSO). She obtained her PhD in political science in Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne University in October 2016. Currently, Her research interests include sociology of political regimes, labour studies, industrial relations, and public policy.

Hosted by Andreas Guidi and Elif Becan.

To cite this episode: Erdinç, Işıl ; Guidi, Andreas, Becan, Elif (2017): Turkish labor unions under AKP rule, The Southeast Passage #023, 22.06.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/erdinc-turkish-labor-unions-akp-rule

 

Music:
Cem Karaca – “İşçi Marşı” (The worker’s march, words by Can Yücel)

///TR
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel 
Dumanı dağıtacak yıldız poyraz başladı 
Bu fırtına varın ki süt limanlığa bedel 
Bahar yakın demek ki mevsim böyle kışladı 
Hava döndü işçiden ediyor yel 
Tekliyor işte çağın çarkına okuyan çark 
Ve durdu muydu bir gün bu kör avara kasnak 
Bir zinciri yitirenler bir dünya kazanacak 
Sen de o dünyadansın sınıfım insafa gel 
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel 
Köylüler uykusunda döndü dönüyor sola 
Güne bakıyor bebek büyüyen yumruğuyla 
Başaklar geberdi baş baş koydular bu yola 
Şaltere uzanıyor tanrıya uzanmış el 
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel 
Senlik benlik bitip de kuruldu muydu bizlik 
Asgari ücret değil, hür ve günlük güneşlik 
Bir Türkiye olacak aldığım son gündelik 
Kalıp kalkacak yine de bilince zalim sen 
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel 
Tarihle yürüyenler tarihle adım adım 
Safları sıklaştırın tarihle hırslanalım 
Lakin hızlandık derken komuta atma sakın 
Başları bozuklar var şimdi bize tek engel 
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel 
Sanki Ferhat’ sın işçi günün senin gelecek 
İndir külüngün indir de şu karanlığı del 
Del ki dağlar ardından önümüze bir çiçek gibi açsın 
Aydınlık tekmil olunca tünel 
Hava döndü işçiden esiyor yel

/// ENG
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
The Eastern Wind that will scatter the mist has risen,
This storm, as strong as a millstone.
Spring is close, it means that the season had wintered so much,
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
The cogwheel of time chugs, 
And one day, once this blind idler stops,
Those who have lost a chain will conquer a world,
You too, you are from that world. My class, come to reason!
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
The villagers are about to turn to the left in their sleep,
The baby is watching the new day with his growing rising fist,
The anthers have bloomed, they point to this path with their heads,
The hand that once reached to God, now reaches to the power switch.
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
Once “you” and “me” come to an end, “we” will be established,
Not a minimum wage, but free and daily sunshine,
Turkey would be my final daily wage,
You will petrify, when you hear this, you tyrant!
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
Those who walk through history, step by step,
Close the ranks! Let’s be furious with this historyin mind!
Though, do not give up the command when you speed up,
The Başıbozuks are there now, as the only obstacle to us. 
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers,
As if you were Ferhat, worker, your day shall come,
Bring down your pick, bring it down to pierce this darkness,
Pierce so the mountains may then blossom like a flower,
When light shines out in the tunnel.
Times have changed, the wind blows from the workers

Further reading:

Akdemir, Nevra; Odman, Aslı (2008): Tuzla Tersaneler bölgesinde örülen ve üstü örtülen sınıfsallıklar [Les relations de classe cachées et masquées dans la zone de construction navale de Tuzla]. In Toplum ve bilim 113, pp. 49–89.

Bourdieu, Pierre (1984): Distinction. A social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge.

Çelik, Aziz (2010): Vesayetten siyasete Türkiye’de sendikacılık. 1946-1967. İstanbul: İletişim (Araştırma – inceleme dizisi, 254).

Durak, Yasin (2011): Emeğin tevekkülü. Konya’da işçi-işveren ilişkileri ve dindarlık [La résignation au travail. Relations employeur-ouvrier et la religiosité à Konya]. İstanbul: İletişim.

Erdinç, Isil (2016): ‪Discrimination syndicale en Turquie‪. In Travail et emploi n° 146 (2), pp. 101–123.

Erdinç, Isil (2017): Le pouvoir de l’AKP et les relations au travail. L’adhésion syndicale sous contrôle. In Mouvements 90 (2), pp. 48–53.

Güler, Hasan (2014): Patron baba ve işçileri. Işçi sınıfı, köylülük ve paternalizm [Le patron, le père et ses ouvriers. Classe ouvrière, paysannerie et paternalisme].  İstanbul: İletişim.

Güzel, M. Şehmus (2007): İşçi tarihine bakmak [Analyser l’histoire des travailleurs]. İstanbul: Türkiye Sosyal Tarih Araştırma Vakfı.

Koç, Yıldırım (2010,): Türkiye işçi sınıfı tarihi. Osmanlı’dan 2010’a [L’histoire de la classe ouvrière turque de l’Etat Ottoman à 2010]. Ankara: Epos.

Koç, Yıldırım (2012): AKP ve emekçiler (2002 – 2012) [L’AKP et les travailleurs]. Ankara: Epos.

Koray, Meryem; Çelik, Aziz (2015): Himmet, fıtrat, piyasa. AKP döneminde sosyal politika [Le don, le destin, le marché. La politique sociale sous le gouvernement AKP].  İstanbul: İletişim.

Öngel, F. Serkan (2012): Kapitalizmin kıskacında kent ve emek. Gebze Bölgesi ve otomotiv sanayi üzerine bir inceleme [La ville et le travail à l’épreuve du capitalisme. Une étude sur la région de Gebze et l’industrie d’automobile]. Çankaya, Ankara: NotaBene.

Quataert, Donald; Zürcher, Erik Jan (Eds.) (1995): Workers and the working class in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic 1839 – 1950. London: Tauris.

Sülker, Kemal (2004): Türkiye sendikacılık tarihi [L’histoire du syndicalisme en Turquie]. İstanbul: Tüstav.

 

Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan at the 13th general congress of the Hak-İş confederation, 2015

 

Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, founded in 1952
Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions, founded in 1967, closed down in 1980, reopened in 1992
Confederation of Real Trade union, founded in 1976, closed down in 1980, reopened in 1981

#022 – A Look at Vučić’s Serbia and the Emergence of New Social Movements

with Milica Popović and Jovana Papović

 

Street protests in Belgrade, April 2017 (Photo: Ne Davimo Beograd, Facebook) 

On 2 April 2017 Alexander Vučić became President of Serbia, winning the first round of the elections, obtaining a score of 55%, and leading in all districts of the country. The public perception and representation of Vučić within Serbia is biased by wide constraints on mainstream media, whereas foreign commentators have difficulties in defining his profile in between his former far-right party affiliation, his being “pro-European”, and the concerns about an authoritarian drift in the country. In this episode, we approach the background and the output of this event. By expanding the discussion beyond the domain of party politics and voting tendencies, we explore some aspects of Serbia’s economic landscape after the fall of Yugoslavia and embed more recent trends in a regional context. Most important, we discuss some emerging forms of social movements and their claims by introducing the impact of some factors such as the attitude of the youth, the perspective of the diaspora and the role that “Yugonostalgia” plays in contemporary politics.

Milica Popović is a PhD student in Comparative Political Sociology at Sciences Po Paris and in Balkan Studies at the University of Ljubljana. She has obtained a master degree in political science at the University Paris 2 Pantheon-Assas in Paris and a bachelor degree at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade. The focus of her research is within memory studies, issues of (Yugo)nostalgia and (post)Yugoslav societies. Milica published articles on the Balkans for different journals such as Družboslovne razprave, Etudes Balkaniques, and Život umjetnosti. She also works as a freelance consultant and expert in higher education and education field, leading her own research and consulting agency “Nomade”.

 

 

Jovana Papović is a graduate student at EHESS Paris, translator and journalist for the web media Le Courrier des Balkans. She is interested in exploring the political dimension of cultural practices in the Balkans, focusing on youth, popular culture and political activism. She is currently co-directing with Astrea Pejović the documentary film “Non-Working Class Hero”, a picture of the youth in Serbia based on the hip-hop collective Bombe Devedesetih.

 

To cite this episode: Popović, Milica; Papović, Jovana; Guidi, Andreas (2017): A look at Vučić’s Serbia and the emergence of new social movements, The Southeast Passage #022, 08.06.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/popovic-papovic-vucic-serbia-social-movements.

Links:

Newsfeed of Le Courrier des Balkans about the protests in Serbia after the elections (in French)

Reportage by the France International Radio (RFI) on the “Trap” music genre in today’s Serbia (in French)

Portrait of Ljubiša Preletačević ‘Beli’the sensational “parody candidate” gaining the third place with almost 10% of the votes (Reuters).

Article on the Belgrade Waterfront project and the Ne da(vi)mo Beograd campaign (OBC Transeuropa).

Music:
Gudroslav feat. Mimi Mercedez – “Bratstvo sestrintsvo” (Brotherhood and Sisterhood)

Original lyrics:

Ne diraj lava dok spava
Ne diraj Mimi dok dimi
Ne diraj Gudrija dok ubija
Te Žaretove matre? dopiru iz studija

Ribe sve su debele, odbijaju posni obrok
Likovi rade na ulici, nemaju topli obrok
Ako bi velike pare, plati nov nos i botoks
Reperi nas smaraju, idu na Goli otok
Bratstvo sestrinstvo, bratstvo sestrinstvo
Brat i sestra – to je isto, brate, bratstvo sestrinstvo
Ne može ništa na pola i keš ne zna za dva pola
Svi se borimo za isto, bratstvo sestrinstvo

Stil je sve i sve je u stilu
A moj stil je predebeo i kad smršam koju kilu
Moje debelo dupe zaslužilo je vilu
I udobno sedište u skupom automobilu
Tu si Mimi i Gudri i Žartikal ludi
Bitno je šta kažu ljudi, dokaži nam da smo tvrdi
Ti kad uđeš u lovu, planiraš da središ život
A ja da budem još veći idiot
Granice se lako prelaze kad shvatiš da ih nema
Ljudi se jako preneraze, al’ ja nemam dilema
Što sam potrošila, opet zaradiću

Što sam propustila, lako nadoknadiću
Gde je laka lova, gde je brz keš?
Prečicom do snova nikad ne stigneš
Torba je u ruci, glava je u torbi
Prečicom do snova, sreća je u borbi
Gde su lake žene, gde je brz seks?
Da degustiram znam samo na eks
Put do trona me loži, a ne tron
Ako je glava u torbi nek je torba Louis Vuitton

Reperi se krevelje i mlataraju rukama
Ja mlataram parama i baratam nulama
Iako publika su ribe, neću da se udvaram
Dobio sam nadimak jer se po nosu udaram
Samo pun gas i debele cave
Kad je udarim po dupetu, da se trese salce
Ove rime nisu pisane u sobi
Ove rime pisane su kod Branke Black Rose
Ortaci su u kraju, bleje bez ideje
Nijedan od njih nema razloga da se smeje
Sjebu pare koje ni ne zarade
Njih deset tali se za vutru, pa se ni ne navare
Imam praznu gajbu, to prenesi svima
Preko dana supa, porodica, noću je kriminal
Keva prvu radi, keva drugu radi
Keva treću radi, Drajzerova je na gajbi

 

Further reading:

Buden, Boris (2012): Zona prelaska. O kraju postkummunizma. Beograd: Fabrika knjiga.

Duda, Igor (2015): Danas kada postajem pionir. Djetinjstvo i ideologija jugoslovenskoga socijalizma. Zagreb, Pula: Sveučilište Jurja Dobrile.

Gilbert, Andrew; Greenberg, Jessica; Helms, Elissa; Jansen, Stef (2008): Reconsidering Postsocialism from the Margins of Europe. Hope, Time and Normalcy in Post-Yugoslav Societies. In Anthropology News 49 (8), pp. 10–11.

Greenberg, Jessica (2010): “There’s Nothing Anyone Can Do About It“. Participation, Apathy, and “Successful” Democratic Transition in Postsocialist Serbia. In Slavic rev. 69 (01), pp. 41–64.

Greenberg, Jessica (2011): On the Road to Normal. Negotiating Agency and State Sovereignty in Postsocialist Serbia. In American Anthropologist 113 (1), pp. 88–100.

Greenberg, Jessica (2014): After the Revolution. Youth, Democracy, and the Politics of Disappointment in Serbia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Horvat, Srecko; Stiks, Igor (Eds.) (2015): Welcome to the desert of post-socialism. Radical politics after Yugoslavia. London: Verso.

Jansen, Stef (2005): Antinacionalizam. Etnografija otpora u Beogradu i Zagrebu. Beograd: Biblioteka XX vek.

Kirn, Gal (2014): Transnationalism in Reverse. From Yugoslav to Post-Yugoslav Memorial Sites. In Chiara de Cesari, Ann Rigney (Eds.): Transnational memory. Circulation, articulation, scales. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 313–338.

Markovina, Dragan (2015): Jugoslavenstvo poslije svega. Beograd: Mostart.

Petrovic, Tanja (2012): Yuropa. Jugoslovensko naslede i politike buducnosti u postjugoslovenskim drustvima. Beograd: Fabrika knjiga.

Popović, Milica (2016): Exhibiting Yugoslavia. In Družboslovne razprave 32 (81), pp. 7–24.

Spasić, Ivana (2013): Kultura na delu. Društvena transformacija Srbije iz burdijeovske perspektive. Beograd: Fabrika knjiga.

Velikonja, Mitja (2008): Titostalgia. A Study of Nostalgia for Josip Broz. Ljubljana: Mediawatch, Peace Institute.

Mitrovica’s gaze: A walk through the crossroads

Milena Pavlović is a PhD candidate in Anthropology at LESC, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense. Her doctoral research focuses on different types of border-ness of Serbian and Albanian inhabitants of Mitrovica. She explores the logics of conflictual interaction that makes Mitrovica a borderland, analyzing the crossing between lived experiences of war and consequent urban, social and biographical trajectories of different generations of the city. Born in Southern Italy from an Italian-Serbian mixed couple, she lives in Paris and she loves ginger, Turkish coffee and paillettes.

 

[mapsmarker layer=”2″]

 

In the north of Kosovo, close to the Serbian border, lies a city with two names: Kosovska Mitrovica for the Serbians living in its northern neighborhoods, “Mitrovicë” for the Albanians living in the southern ones.

The disintegration of Yugoslavia, the violence of the war between the troops directed from Belgrade and the Kosovo Liberation Army in 1998 and 1999, as well as the international military presence after the conflict have shaped the social and political geography of the city. The Ibar river that flows across Mitrovica has become a border separating two spaces of reclaimed national sovereignty, two territorial conceptions, two memories of the past and the war.

Just like in the city, the current “ethnic” composition and distribution of the whole country results from violent inter-communal confrontations. The conflict has re-defined the territory through both spontaneous and forced population displacements. Systematic violence in 1998-1999 has not only heavily impacted on the emigration – be it provisory or definitive – of minorities that were on the “wrong” side of the border,  but also reconfigured the daily relationships of those staying.

A photographic representation of this space cannot be dissociated from the way I have been crossing it. Both my perception and my gaze have evolved during 9 months of stay and ethnographic fieldwork until today. During my first days in Mitrovica, I used to walk from Kosovska Mitrovica to Mitrovicë constantly asking myself if Albanians would decipher my Serbian origin through my facial traits or in a “hvala” pronounced without thinking. I reflected on how I had internalized the history of this city and its delicate balance so much that I felt as if I belonged to this complexity. The language I speak, my name, my apartment in the north, my acquaintances…

Among the first commentaries on my field note, I wrote: “Am I a stranger?”. I felt like an outsider. I felt the eyes of the locals constantly landing on me, in the North as well as in the South. Little by little, I started to understand the logic of the village dimension in Mitrovica. It is important to look at and recognize each other in the street, chatting or sharing a coffee is a daily practice. At the same time, there was my foreigner complex, held inside, convincing myself to be looked at as such. Who was I? Which position did the locals attribute to me as they glanced at me while walking the streets of Mitrovica? Above all, I didn’t want to be considered as an “occidental foreigner” arrived in the city to teach them democracy. There are so many international security forces and NGO volunteers in Mitrovica already, and I wasn’t one of them. I often wished to disappear in anonymity and peacefully wonder about my own subjectivity. Nevertheless, I continued to walk. And I asked the persons I was speaking to if they could join me and share the story of the areas we were crossing together. A crossed experience so to speak. I transformed myself as I was walking the streets and the city transformed itself under my eyes. I took a responsibility for the plurality of my subjectivities being there. I am a curious stranger, I am a Serb from somewhere else in Kosovska Mitrovica, I am an Italian in Mitrovicë, sometimes I am the three of it, sometimes I am even someone else.

Mitrovica is not an easy city to live, to go through. It isn’t easy to tell its story without surrendering to a simplistic vision or better said di-vision of its space. Rural and urban life coexist in a landscape where daily activities, smells and sounds cannot be firmly located in the North or the South of the city. The socialist buildings and small brick houses succeed one another hidden behind new modern unfinished buildings. The smell of “burek” meets those of Turkish coffees served nonstop. If I lay my eyes toward the North, I can see posters in Serbian Cyrillic alphabet. In the South, on the other side of the Ibar river, I see an Albanian store sign. When prayer time comes in the South, the muezzin voice fills the air and invites itself through the window of my room, on the outskirt of North Mitrovica. This city cannot tell one story, not even two, a Serbian and an Albanian. There is a polyphonic story that moves in between, there is a story of the past and a story of a present time shaped by contradictions, negotiations and daily compromises.

Pedestrian zones in the North (left) and the South (right). The one in Mitrovica North is financed by the EU

While buildings from the socialist period prevail in the North, new blocks are predominantly in the South

Grillhouses selling ćevapi (left)/qevap (right)

Street vendors in North (left) and South (right) Mitrovica

The Church of Saint Dimitrija (left) and the Mosque of Bajram Pasha (right) were both built in the 21st century. The former was to provide the Orthodox with a religious site and prevent them from the risks of going to churches in the South. The latter (financed by Turkey) was to compensate the loss of a much older mosque which had been set on fire in the North in 1999

Street obituaries in the North (left) and in the South (right)

A Serbian Orthodox (left) and the Muslim (right) cemetery, located respectively in South and North Mitrovica 


Further reading:

Carabelli, Giulia (2014): Gdje si? Walking as a Reflexive Practice. In Timothy Shortell, Evrick Brown (Eds.): Walking in the European city. Quotidian mobility and urban ethnography. London: Routledge, pp. 191–206.

Clayer, Nathalie (2013): Kosova. The Building Process of a territory from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century. In Eyal Ginio, Karl Kaser (Eds.): Ottoman legacies in the contemporary Mediterranean. The Balkans and the Middle East Compared. Jerusalem: The European Forum at the Hebrew University, pp. 79–92.

Duijzings, Gerlachlus (2000): Religion and the politics of identity in Kosovo. New York: Columbia University Press.

Jansen, Stef (2013): People and things in the ethnography of borders. Materialising the division of Sarajevo. In Social Anthropology 21 (1), pp. 23–37.

Jones, Babsi (2007): Sappiano le mie parole di sangue. Milano: Rizzoli.

Jović, Dejan (2001): Fear of becoming minority as a motivator of conflict in the former Yugoslavia. In Balkanologie. Revue d’études pluridisciplinaires 5 (1-2), pp. 21–36.

#021 – On the Road with Romanian Migrants and Traders

with Norah Benarrosh-Orsoni

 

Travellers and drivers during a break on the road from Montreuil to Arad 

After 1989, Romania’s economy and its labor market experienced dramatic changes. One of the most common strategies to survive in a state of precariousness was emigration abroad. In this episode, we discuss two case studies based on based on transnational migration and cross-border informal trade. Firstly, we look at the Parisian suburb of Montreuil, where Roma families have settled in squats in different moments since the late 1990s, and from where they still often travel to Arad, in Transylvania, using mini-busses provided by informal travel agencies. Secondly, we move to the Laleli neighborhood in Istanbul to discuss suitcase trade mostly practiced by Romanian women.

Norah Benarrosh-Orsoni is a postdoctoral fellow at the CETOBAC – EHESS. She obtained her PhD in social anthropology at the Université Paris Ouest in september 2015. Her research interests focus on transnational mobility, material culture in and around domestic spaces, and transportation studies. Born and raised in Paris from Moroccan and Corsican origins, she is also an engraving artist and one of the co-founder of the independant journal Panthère Première, whose first issue will be published in September 2017.

 

To cite this episode: Benarrosh-Orsoni, Norah; Guidi, Andreas (2017): On the road with Romanian labor migrants, The Southeast Passage #021, 19.05.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/benarrosh-orsoni-romanian-labor-migrants

Music:

Cântecul înstrăinatului” (The Expatriate Song), folk song from Transylvania recorded in 1928 (Bibliothèque Nationale de France – Enregistrements sonores)

Further reading:

Basu, Paul; Coleman, Simon (Eds.) (2008): Migrant worlds, material cultures. Special issue of the journal “Mobilities” 3 (3).

Benarrosh-Orsoni, Norah (2015a): Des maisonnées transnationales. Une migration rom dans ses routes, lieux et objets entre la Roumanie et la France. Université Paris Ouest Nanterre, Paris.

Benarrosh-Orsoni, Norah (2015b): Prendre la route à bord du microbus. Mobilités, ancrages et territorialités chez les Roms roumains entre Arad et Montreuil. In Michèle Baussant, Irène Dos Santos, Evelyne Ribert (Eds.): Logiques mémorielles et temporalités migratoires. Nanterre: PU Paris 10, pp. 295–324.

Boccagni, Paolo (2013): What’s in a (migrant) house? Changing domestic spaces, the negotiation of belonging and home-making in Ecuadorian migration. In Housing, Theory and Society 31 (3), pp. 277–293.

Borgel, Céline; Pérouse, Jean-François (2004): La gare routière du « Grand Istanbul », une étourdissante plaque tournante. In Autrepart 32 (4), pp. 51–73.

Chelcea, Liviu (2002): The culture of shortage during state-socialism. Consumption practices in a Romanian village in the 1980s. In Cultural Studies 16 (1), pp. 16–43.

Dalakoglou, Dimitris (2010): The road. An ethnography of the Albanian-Greek cross-border motorway. In American Ethnologist 37 (1), pp. 132–149.

Olivera, Martin (2009): Les Roms comme “minorité ethnique”? Un questionnement roumain. In Etudes tsiganes (39-40), pp. 128–150.

Pérouse, Jean-François (2002): Laleli, giga-bazar d’Istanbul ? Appréhender les caractéristiques et les mutations d’une place commerciale internationale. In Michel Peraldi (Ed.): La fin des norias? Réseaux migrants dans les économies marchandes en Méditerranée. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, pp. 307–333.

Yukseker, Deniz (2004): Trust and Gender in a Transnational Market. The Public Culture of Laleli, Istanbul. In Public Culture 16 (1), pp. 47–66.

The interior of a Roma migrant’s village house in Romania, May 2011

A suitcase shop next to the international bus station in Laleli, Istanbul, March 2017

Leaving Istanbul on the suitcase traders bus, Emniyet bus station, February 2016

#020 – Space, Wealth, and Power in the Ottoman Empire

with Ali Yaycioglu

 

Fethiye Mosque and Ali Pasha’s tomb, Ioannina (Greece)

Ottoman Studies offer several unexplored fields of research for the perspectives introduced by the so called “spatial turn” in historiography. “Space” can be investigated as a constituive element in an abstract imaginary of power and agency, but also as a repository which engenders diverse, more directly experienced “places” where knowledge is produced and power structures become visible. After some theorietical remarks, in this episode we discuss some ongoing projects focused on the spatiality of the Ottoman Empire in the early modern era. Secondly, we introduce some concrete example of how actors moved through space in configurations which included state structures and translocal networks, increasingly integrated into the Ottoman polity. This complex interplay is an occasion to reflect on some dynamics of accumulation of power and wealth through loyalty building, and how this accumulation was characterised by high volatility.

Ali Yaycioglu is assistant professor at the History Department of Stanford University. His main field of interest is the study of transformations and crises of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the broader context of transition from early-modern to modern world. Ali is the author of a monograph on this topic entitled Partners of the Empire: Crisis of the Ottoman Order in the Age of Revolutions (Stanford University Press, 2016). In this and in further works and projects, his research has focused on the restructring of economic and political institutions and ideas, changes in social and religious life, Ottoman spatial imaginations of life, nature and power, cultural and environmental history of Modern Turkey. He is currently working on a second monograph with the tentative title “Order of Volatility: Wealth, Power and Death in the Ottoman Empire”.

To cite this episode: Yaycioglu, Ali; Guidi, Andreas (2017): Space, wealth, and power in the Ottoman Empire, The Southeast Passage #020, 03.05.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/yaycioglu-space-wealth-power-ottoman-empire

 

Links:

“Ottoman topologies: Spatial Experience in an Early Modern Empire and Beyond” conference programme (Stanford, 2014)

“Mapping Ottoman Epirus: Region, Power and Empire”, digital project coordinated by Ali Yaycioglu and Antonis Hadjikyriacou

Ali Yaycioglu’s interview for the Ottoman History Podcast (no.275)

Bouluo“, folk song from Epirus recorded in 1930 (Bibliothèque Nationale de France – Enregistrements sonores)

Further reading:

Bourdieu, Pierre (2014): On the state. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1989-1992. Cambridge: Polity.

Brenner, Neil (2004): New state spaces. Urban governance and the rescaling of statehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dankoff, Robert; Kim, Sooyong (Eds.) (2011): An Ottoman traveller. Selections from the Book of travels of Evliya Çelebi. London: Eland.

Graeber, David (2011): Debt. The first 5,000 years. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House.

Lefebvre, Henri (1974): La production de l’espace. In L’Homme et la société 31 (1), pp. 15–32.

Salzmann, Ariel (1993): An Ancien Regime Revisited. “Privatization” and Political Economy in the Eighteenth-Century Ottoman Empire. In Politics & Society 21 (4), pp. 393–423.

Spang, Rebecca L. (2015): Stuff and money in the time of the French Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Yaycioglu, Ali (2016): Partners of the Empire. The Crisis of the Ottoman Order in the Age of Revolutions. Redwood City: Stanford University Press.

Muhallefat Defter (records of properties left behind) of Mustafa Bayraktar (d. 1808). BOA MAD 9726

#019 – A New Town in Socialist Yugoslavia in Comparative Perspective

with Ana Kladnik

 

The new town center of Velenje, early 1960s (Velenje Museum)

After 1945, Yugoslavia aimed at fostering its industrial infrastructure by bringing factories closer to the sites where natural resources were abundant. The “new town” of Velenje in Slovenia was planned in this context in order to provide good housing for the coal miners previously living in surrounding villages. In this episode, we discuss the impact of this urban experiment in the socialization of its inhabitants, the decision making process in its planning, mobilization in form of voluntary work, and the exposure of an urban model to foreign visitors. All these topics are examined in a comparative perspective, focused on another “new town”, Havířov in nowadays Czech Republic, but expanding to a transnational framework beyond the socialist bloc.

Ana Kladnik obtained her Ph.D. in history at the University of Ljubljana. She is currently research associate at the Centre for Contemporary History in Potsdam and working on a project related to voluntary work and voluntarism in East Central Europe in the last two decades of the 20th century.  Ana is also co-editing a forthcoming collective volume tentatively entitled  “Socialism as Sinnwelt. Representations of Social Order and Transformation of Authority in East Central Europe after 1945”.

To cite this episode: Kladnik, Ana; Guidi, Andreas (2017): A New Town in Socialist Yugoslavia in a comparative perspective, The Southeast Passage #019, 06.04.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/kladnik-new-towns-yugoslavia

Further reading:

 

Bren, Paulina (2010): The greengrocer and his TV. The culture of communism after the 1968 Prague Spring. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Brunnbauer, Ulf (2007): “Die sozialistische Lebensweise”. Ideologie, Gesellschaft, Familie und Politik in Bulgarien (1944-1989). Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau Verlag.

Horváth, Sándor (2017): Stalinism reloaded. Everyday life in Stalin-City, Hungary, 1950-1961. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Jarausch, Konrad Hugo; Duffy, Eve (Eds.) (1999): Dictatorship as experience. Towards a socio-cultural history of the GDR. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Kladnik, Ana (2013): A quest for new paradigms and the use of different methodologies in the case of new towns and settlements in socialist Slovenia. In lada Duraković, Andrea Matošević (Eds.): Socialism on the bench. Cultural and historical interpretations of Yugoslav and Post-Yugoslav societies. Pula, Zagreb: Srednja Europa, pp. 214–236.

Kotkin, Stephen (1997): Magnetic mountain. Stalinism as a civilization. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Kulić, Vladimir; Mrduljaš, Maroje; Thaler, Wolfgang (Eds.) (2012): Modernism in-between. The mediatory architectures of socialist Yugoslavia. Berlin: Jovis.

Lebow, Katherine Anne (2013): Unfinished utopia. Nowa Huta, Stalinism, and Polish society, 1949 – 56. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

Lindenberger, Thomas (Ed.) (1999): Herrschaft und Eigen-Sinn in der Diktatur. Studien zur Gesellschaftsgeschichte der DDR. Köln, Wien u.a.: Böhlau.

Lüdtke, Alf (Ed.) (1995): The history of everyday life. Reconstructing historical experiences and ways of life. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Ludwig, Andreas (2000): Eisenhüttenstadt. Wandel einer industriellen Gründungsstadt in fünfzig Jahren. Potsdam: Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für Politische Bildung.

Mercina, Andrej (2006): Arhitekt Ilija Arnautović. Socializem v slovenski arhitekturi. Ljubljana: Viharnik.

Salecl, Renata (1993): Zakaj ubogamo oblast? Nadzorovanje, ideologija in ideološke fantazme. Ljubljana: Državna založba Slovenije.

Wakeman, Rosemary (2016): Practicing Utopia. An intellectual history of the New Town Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Zarecor, Kimberly E. (2011): Manufacturing a socialist modernity. Housing in Czechoslovakia, 1945 – 1960. Pittsburgh Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Austrian gardener Filipsky in People’s Park with the family houses settlement in the background, mid-1950s (Velenje Museum)

View of Havířov late 1950s (Tesinska Museum)

 

 

 

 

 

Lyrics of the anthem dedicated to the Builders of Velenje:

There, where yesterday
a farmer still plowed with his bulls,
where there were many puddles and floods,

a miracle happened overnight:
all the old is gone and
Paka is now subdued, burbling
the song of the future.

To our pride
the town already shines in the sun,
this is our contribution
to all our community.
Velenje you are beautiful,
like a real Paradise

#018 – Les Jeunes Turcs: Sauver l’Empire et créer la Nation

Hosted by Andreas Guidi and Aurélie Perrier, edited by Chris Gratien

 

SPECIAL EPISODE IN FRENCH IN COOPERATION WITH “OTTOMAN HISTORY PODCAST” (Series “Tout/MO”)

“The Rebirth of the Ottoman Empire”, litograph by Sotirios Christidis, ca. 1909 (Source: Wikimedia Commons) 

ENG: By reframing the discourse on history and identity, the Revolution of 1908 and the Young Turk movement radically transformed the multi-confessional and multiethnic system of the Ottoman empire.  In this episode, François Georgeon discusses the origins of the Young Turks, their intellectual legacies and social background, along with their perception of the Ottoman past and their relationship to central authority.  The episode also explores the way in which the movement reshaped relationships with minority communities in the late Ottoman era.

FR: Le mouvement des Jeunes Turcs et la Révolution de 1908 bouleversent profondément le système multiethnique et multiconfessionnel de l’Empire Ottoman en établissant un nouveau cadre politique pour les identifications concernant l’ État et la Nation. Dans cet épisode, François Georgeon explore avec nous les origines et les principales transformations du mouvement Jeune Turc: qui sont ces révolutionnaires ? Sont-ils des libéraux ou des réactionnaires, et comment caractériser leur rapport au passé ottoman, aux institutions ottomanes et à la modernité ? Enfin, comment s’articulent les identités nationalistes et impérialistes qu’ils invoquent et quelles conséquences pour la notion du vivre ensemble au sein de l’Empire Ottoman et dont la République Turque hérite ?

ENG: François Georgeon is director of research emeritus at the CNRS and member of the Center for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan and Central Asian Studies (CETOBaC) at the EHESS in Paris.  A specialist of late Ottoman and early Turkish Republican history, he has published a biography of Sultan Abdülhamid II and authored numerous books and articles on Ottoman and Turkish nationalism.

FR: François Georgeon est directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS et membre titulaire du Centre d’Études Turques, Ottomanes, Balkaniques et Centrasiatiques (CETOBaC) de l’EHESS à Paris.  Spécialiste de l’Empire Ottoman au XIXe et XXe siècles, il est l’auteur d’une biographie d’Abdülhamid II et de nombreux ouvrages sur les nationalismes ottomans et turcs.

 

To cite this episode: Georgeon, François; Guidi, Andreas; Perrier, Aurelie (2017): Les Jeunes Turcs: Sauver l’empire et créer la Nation, The Southeast Passage #018, 23.03.2017,  http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/georgeon-jeunes-turcs-empire-nation

 

Further Reading:

Çetinkaya, Doğan Y. The Young Turks and the boycott movement: Nationalism, protest and the working classes in the formation of modern Turkey. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014.

Der Matossian, Bedross. Shattered dreams of revolution: From liberty to violence in the late Ottoman Empire. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Fortna, Benjamin C. Imperial classroom: Islam, the state, and education in the late Ottoman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Georgeon, François. “Les Jeunes Turcs étaient-ils jeunes ? Sur le phénomène des générations, de l’Empire ottoman à la République turque.” In: Enfance et jeunesse dans le monde musulman. Edited by François Georgeon and Klaus Kreiser. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007, pp. 146–73.

Georgeon, François.  ed. “L’ivresse de la liberté”: La révolution de 1908 dans l’Empire ottoman. Leuven: Peeters, 2012.

Georgeon, François and Klaus Kreiser, eds. Enfance et jeunesse dans le monde musulman. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007.

Georgeon, François, Nicolas Vatin, and Gilles Veinstein, eds. Dictionnaire de l’empire Ottoman. Paris: Fayard, 2015.

Hanioğlu, Şükrü M. The Young Turks in opposition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Hanioğlu, Şükrü M.  . Preparation for a revolution: The Young Turks, 1902-1908. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Kayalı, Hasan. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Lévy-Aksu, Noémi and François Georgeon, eds. The Young Turk revolution and the Ottoman Empire: The aftermath of 1908. London: I.B. Tauris, 2017.

Taglia, Stefano. Intellectuals and reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Young Turks on the challenges of modernity. New York: Routledge, 2015.

Zürcher, Erik J.. “The Young Turks – Children of the borderlands?” International Journal of Turkish Studies 9/1-2, 2003, pp. 275–286.

Zürcher, Erik J.. The Young Turk legacy and nation building: From the Ottoman Empire to Atatürk’s Turkey. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010.

Cover of the Ottoman journal Şehbāl on the celebrations for the 1st anniversary of the Ottoman Constitution, August 1909 (Source: University of Bonn, Digital Magazines Collection)

Ottoman satyrical cartoon, undated: “Dad, who is that old man?” “He’s a Young Turk, son”

#017 – Muslim nation-building in Socialist Yugoslavia

with Iva Lucic

 

Street scene from 1960s Sarajevo. (Photo: FORTEPAN/ Romák Evá)

The “long 1960s” represent a vibrant decade for debates on state reconfiguration in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Inside the Communist Party, voices for decentralization gained the overhand in 1964 and eventually led to the new constitution of 1974, which granted more power to the single republics. Reacting to and participating in this political shift, intellectuals engaged in discussions as to how to redefine the markers of belonging, which were to merge territoriality and nationality. This issue was particularly sensitive in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the only republic whose sovereignty was not defined in national terms. In this episode, we discuss how the Communist Party elevated the Muslims from a religious groups to a nation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Moreover, we approach various options of identification in use at the time, from “Yugoslavs” to “Muslims” and “Bosniaks”, their evolution, and their interplay with governmental cultural politics.

Iva Lucic holds a PhD in History from Uppsala University (Sweden) and is a historian of early modern and modern Southeast Europe. Her first monograph, “Im Namen der Nation. Der politische Aufwertungsprozess der Muslime im sozialistischen Jugoslawien”, explored the politics of a Muslim nation-building in a socialist state. Her second book (forthcoming in 2017) deals with continuities and ruptures of religiousity and its social practices among Catholics in Bohemia, after the break-up of the Habsburg  Monarchy. Iva’s current project analyzes the transimperial transition between the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungary in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a focus on forest management.

To cite this episode: Lucic, Iva; Guidi, Andreas (2017): Muslim nation-building in Socialist Yugoslavia, The Southeast Passage #017, 02.03.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/lucic-muslim-nation-building-yugoslavia

Further reading: 

Bergholz, Max (2013): Sudden Nationhood. The Microdynamics of Intercommunal Relations in Bosnia-Herzegovina after World War II. In The American Historical Review 118 (3), pp. 679–707.

Bougarel, Xavier (2003): Bosnian Muslims and the Yugoslav idea. In Dejan Djokić (Ed.): Yugoslavism. Histories of a failed idea, 1918-1992. London: Hurst, pp. 100–114.

Bougarel, Xavier (2015): Survivre aux empires. Islam, identité nationale et allégeances politiques en Bosnie-Herzégovine. Paris: Éditions Karthala.

Brunnbauer, Ulf; Grandits, Hannes (Eds.) (2013): The ambiguous nation. Case studies from Southeastern Europe in the 20th century. München: Oldenbourg.

Cvetković-Sander, Ksenija (2011): Sprachpolitik und nationale Identität im sozialistischen Jugoslawien (1945 – 1991). Serbokroatisch, Albanisch, Makedonisch und Slowenisch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Dragovič-Soso, Jasna (2002): ‘Saviours of the nation’. Serbia’s intellectual opposition and the revival of nationalism. London: Hurst.

Grandits, Hannes; Sundhaussen, Holm (Eds.) (2013): Jugoslawien in den 1960er Jahren. Auf dem Weg zu einem (a)normalen Staat? Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Haug, Hilde Katrine (2012): Creating a socialist Yugoslavia. Tito, communist leadership and the national question. London: I.B. Tauris.

Hobson, Barbara (Ed.) (2003): Recognition struggles and social movements. Contested identities, agency and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Höpken, Wolfgang (1989): Die jugoslawischen Kommunisten und die bosnischen Muslime. In Andreas Kappeler, Gerhard Simon, Georg Brunner (Eds.): Die Muslime in der Sowjetunion und in Jugoslawien. Identität, Politik, Widerstand. Köln: Markus, pp. 181–210.

Jovic, Dejan (2002): Jugoslavija. Država koja je odumrla. Uspon, kriza i pad Četvrte Jugoslavije (1974 – 1990). Zagreb: Prometej.

Lucic, Iva (2012): In the service of the nation. Intellectuals’ articulation of the Muslim national identity. In Nationalities Papers 40 (1), pp. 23–44.

Lučić, Iva (2016): Im Namen der Nation. Der politische Aufwertungsprozess der Muslime im sozialistischen Jugoslawien (1956–1971). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. (2nd edition by Wiesbaden: Harassowitz forthcoming)

Sewell, William Hamilton (2005): Logics of history. Social theory and social transformation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wachtel, Andrew Baruch (1998): Making a nation, breaking a nation. Literature and cultural politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Zahra, Tara (2010): Imagined noncommunities. National indifference as a category of analysis. In Slavic review 69 (1), pp. 93–119.

Results of the Yugoslavs censuses of 1961 and 1971 for the category “Muslims”

Results of the Yugoslavs censuses of 1961 and 1971 for the category “Yugoslavs”

#016 – Balkan Migrants in Turkey: Naturalization, Identifications, and Associations

with Elif Becan

 

An example of Tabiiyet Beyannamesi (citizenship certificate) of a Muslim family from today Provadia, Bulgaria, arriving in Turkey in 1934

The repatriation of Muslim refugees from the lost territories in the Balkans to Anatolia became an urgent issue for Ottoman territorial and settlement policies since the war against the Russian Empire in 1877-1878. After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and until the 1950s, this practice continued, although migrants were settled along new criteria of identification with the state: Islam, post-imperial legacy, and bonds to the Turkish nation. Beside the bureaucratic process of naturalization, however, the integration of Balkan Muslims into Turkish society followed different patterns and results. In this episode, we discuss the dynamics establishing a “mutual loyalty” between the migrants and the state, through factors such as neighborhood communitarianism, founding of associatons, and reappropriation of historical terms such as “Evlad-i Fatihan” (Children of the conquerors).

Elif Becan is a Ph.D. Candidate at the CETOBaC/EHESSin Paris. Her doctoral research focuses on the categorization of outsiders through the case of populations of Albanian origin in Turkey in the first half of the 20th century. Born in Karachi, she grew up in Istanbul before moving to Paris. Rumor has it that she is searching a lead to trace immigrants to Middle-Earth, in order to reveal their so far hidden contributions in the concoction of the legendary wines of Esgaroth.

To cite this episode: Becan, Elif; Guidi, Andreas (2017): Balkan migrants in Turkey: Naturalization, identifications, and associations, The Southeast Passage #016, 09.02.2017, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/becan-balkan-migrants-turkey-associations

Further Reading:

Aymes, Marc (2014): Gouverner par formulaire. In Anne Mailloux, Laure Verdon (Eds.): L’ enquête en questions. De la réalité à la “vérité” dans les modes de gouvernement, Moyen âge – Temps modernes. Paris: CNRS éditions, pp. 131–138.

Baklacıoğlu, Nurcan Özgür (2015): Between neo-Ottomanist kin policy in the Balkans and Transnational Kin Economics in the EU. In Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 14 (3), pp. 47–72.

Brubaker, Rogers (2004): Ethnicity without groups. 1. paperback ed. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

Clayer, Nathalie (2001): Islam et identité nationale dans l’espace albanais (Albanie, Macédoine, Kosovo) 1989-1998. In Archives de sciences sociales des religions 46 (115), pp. 161–181.

De Rapper, Gilles (2000): Les Albanais à Istanbul. Istanbul: IFEA (Les dossiers de l’IFEA Série la Turquie aujourd’hui, 3).

Erdem, Y. Hakan (2014): Turks as Soldiers in Mahmud II’s Army. Turning the Evlad-ı Fatihan into Regulars in the Ottoman Balkans. In Sabine Rutar (Ed.): Beyond the Balkans. Towards an inclusive history of southeastern Europe. Wien u.a.: LiT (Studies on South East Europe, 10), pp. 227–246.

Hersant, Jeanne (2005): Les associations de migrants originaires de Thrace occidentale (Grèce) à Bursa et Zeytinburnu. Pratiques politiques et figures du notable. In European Journal of Turkish Studies (2). Available online at http://ejts.revues.org/368.

Kirisçi, Kemal (1996): Refugees of Turkish Origin. “Coerced Immigrants” to Turkey since 1945. In International Migration 34 (3), pp. 385–412. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.1996.tb00534.x.

Kurtoglu, Ayça (2005): Mekansal Bir Olgu Olarak Hemşehrilik ve Bir Hemşehrilik Mekanı Olarak Dernekler. In European Journal of Turkish Studies (2). Available online at http://ejts.revues.org/375.

Pezo, Edvin (2009): ‘Re-conquering’ Space. Yugoslav Migration Policies and the Emigration of Non-Slavic Muslims to Turkey (1918-1941). In Ulf Brunnbauer (Ed.): Transnational societies, transterritorial politics. Migrations in the (Post-)Yugoslav region 19th – 21th century. München: Oldenbourg (Südosteuropäische Arbeiten, 141), pp. 73–94.

Toumarkine, Alexandre (2005): Le développement des associations de hemşehri en Turquie (1933-2003) à l’échelle nationale et départementale. In European Journal of Turkish Studies (2). Available online at http://ejts.revues.org/409.

Trix, Frances (2017): Urban Muslim migrants in Istanbul. Identity and trauma among Balkan immigrants. London, New York: I.B. Tauris (Library of modern Turkey).

Yıldız, Ahmet (2001): Ne mutlu Türküm diyebilene. Türk ulusal kimliğinin etno-seküler sınırları : (1919 – 1938). 1. baskı. İstanbul: İletişim (İletişim yayınları Araştırma – inceleme dizisi, 107).

 

Some founders of the association “Vardarlılar Yardımlaşma Derneği” renamed “Rumeli Türkleri Derneği” in 1967

Pictures from Hasanbaba, Tokat, Turkey. The village is populated by many Albanian speakers. Photos by Elif Becan

Tabiiyet Beyannamesi from 1941 attached to the decision of Council of Ministers concerning naturalization of 648 foreigners from Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania in March 1942. Ankara, Başbakanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi – 30.18.1.2 – 9.126.13 Ek – 1-1215