Bulgarian Muslims between Empire and Nation

 

With Milena Methodieva

hosted by Andreas Guidi and Jovo Miladinovic for a joint release with Ottoman History Podcast

 

The Aladja Mosque in Plovdiv, early 20th century (Wikimedia Commons)

 

In 1878, following the Congress of Berlin, Bulgaria became a de facto independent principality. Not anymore under Ottoman rule, the Muslims of Bulgaria navigated this political shift by redefining their place as a minority of a nation-state. The community underwent a political polarization between traditional notables and a group pushing for reforms within Muslim institutions. In this episode, we discuss how these reformists engaged with state and nation-building in Bulgaria by highlighting their connections with the broader Muslim world. Not only did Bulgarian Muslims contribute to the rise of the Young Turk movement, they were also part of a transnational space in which intellectuals and activists debated issues such as the place of Islam in modern society, the value of education, and the question of political relationship with non-Muslim rulers.

 


 

Milena Methodieva is a scholar of Ottoman, Balkan, and Turkish history. She is Assistant Professor at the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto, Canada. Her scholarship focuses on the political, social, and intellectual transformations in the late Ottoman Empire, its successors in the Balkans, and modern Turkey. In her new research project, she focuses on migration to explore the unraveling of the Ottoman imperial world and the emergence of nation-states in the Balkans and modern Turkey.

 

To cite this episode: Milena Methodieva, Andreas Guidi, Jovo Miladinovic (2022): Bulgarian Muslims between Empire and Nation. The Southeast Passage and Ottoman History Podcast #041, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/methodieva-bulgarian-muslims-empire-nation/.

 

Music:

Eridi Kalmadı Dağların Karı, performed by Seval Eroğlu, freesound.com (Creative Commons)

Kanun Taksimi, freesound.com (Creative Commons)

 

Further reading:

Nikolay Antov, The Ottoman “Wild West:” the Balkan Frontier in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017).

Ebru Boyar, Ottomans, Turks and the Balkans: Empire Lost, Relations Altered (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007).

Ali Eminov, Turkish and Other Muslim Minorities in Bulgaria (London: Hurst, 1997).

Nevena Gramatikova, Neortodoksalniat isliam v bǔlgarskite zemi. Minalo i sǔvremennost (Sofia: IK Gutenberg, 2011).

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu, The Young Turks in Opposition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu, Preparation for a Revolution: the Young Turks, 1902-1908 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Kemal Karpat, Ed., The Turks of Bulgaria: The History and Political Fate of a Minority (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1990).

Osman Keskioğlu, Bulgaristan’da Türkler: Tarih ve Kültür (Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Yayınları, 1985).

Bernard Lory, Les Balkans: de la transition post-ottomane à la transition post-communiste (Istanbul: Isis, 2005).

Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile: the Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922 (Princeton: Darwin Press, 1995).

Milena Methodieva, “How Turks and Bulgarians Became Ethnic Brothers: History, Propaganda and Political Alliances on the Eve of the Young Turk Revolution,” Turkish Historical Review 5 (2014), 221-262.

Anna Mirkova, Muslim Land, Christian Labor: Transforming Ottoman Imperial Subjects into Bulgarian National Citizens, 1878-1939 (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2017).

Mary Neuburger, The Orient within: Muslim Minorities and the Negotiation of Nationhood in Modern Bulgaria (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004).

Alexandre Toumarkine, Les Migrations des populations musulmanes balkaniques en Anatolie (1876-1913) (Istanbul : Isis, 1995).

Zhorzheta Nazǔrska, Bǔlgarskata dǔrzhava i neinite maltsinstva, 1879-1885 (Sofia: Lik, 1999).

Erik J. Zürcher, “The Young Turks – Children of the Borderlands?” International Journal of Turkish Studies 9: 1-2 (2003), 257-86.

 

The Muslim education board with students and teachers from the rüşdiye and the Hacı Mehmed primary school in Russe, Source: Uhuvvet 117, 9 August 1906. Courtesy of Hakkı Tarık Us Library, Istanbul

 

The last scene of Namık Kemal’s theatrical play “Akif Bey” staged in Silistra, Uhuvvet 120, 5 September 1906. Theater was one of the means used to advance the reformers’ agenda and foster a sense of patriotism among the local Muslims. Courtesy of Hakkı Tarık Us Library, Istanbul

 

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
Bulgarian Muslims between Empire and Nation
/

A History of Knowledge about the Holocaust in Bulgaria

 

With Nadège Ragaru

Marco Behar: “Their Last Way” (from the Series “Past”, detail, 1958), Courtesy of the Bulgarian National Gallery, Sofia.

 

Since the immediate aftermath of the end of World War II, a narrative concerning the rescue of the Bulgarian Jews from deportation and genocide has nurtured the self-representation of the governments in Sofia and the public discourse in the country. From the decades of state socialist rule to the post-1989 political transformations which led to Bulgaria’s entry into the European Union, the international framework of Holocaust remembrance as well as some references in this discourse have changed, yet the bulk of the rescue narrative which sees the Jews as passive entity persists. This episode discusses how historiography can critically engage with the complex and fragmented knowledge of the Holocaust in Southeast Europe through a journey into different voices and different sources, from trial attestations to popular fiction movies to visual material.

 

Nadège Ragaru is Research Professor at Sciences Po Paris. Her works explore the history, the historiography, and the memory of the Holocaust and World War II in Southeast Europe. She is currently working on a book project dedicated to war crimes trials in the final months of World War II.

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/611N5NIs9GL.jpg

To cite this episode: Nadège Ragaru, Andreas Guidi (2021): A History of Knowledge about the Holocaust in Bulgaria. The Southeast Passage #040, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/ragaru-history-knowledge-holocaust-bulgaria/.

 

Music:

Edoy: Chance

 

Text Excerpt:

Deposition by Berta and Milko Noah, Skopje, December 27, 1944. The document was produced within the Preliminary Investigation for anti-Jewish crimes in Bulgaria. Source: Vărban Todorov and Nikolaj Poppetrov (eds.), VII săstav na narodnija săd. Edno sabraveno dokumentalno svidetelstvo za antisemitizma v Bălgarija pred 1941-1944 g., Sofia : Iztok & Zapad, 2013, p. 188-193. Translated by Naemi Haberkorn, read out for The Southeast Passage by Nisrine Rahal.

 

Further reading:

Chary Frederick, The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940-1944, Pittsburgh (Pa.), University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972.

Cohen Mark, Last Century of a Sephardic Community: The Jews of Monastir, 1839-1943, New York (N. Y.), Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture, 2003.

Benveniste Rika, Die Überlebenden. Widerstand, Deportation, Rückkehr. Juden aus Thessaloniki in der 1940er Jahren, Berlin, Ed. Romiosini CeMoG, 2016.

Danova Nadja and Avramov Roumen (eds.) Deportiraneto na evreite ot Vardarska Makedonija, Belomorska Trakija i Pirot, mart 1943 g. Dokumenti ot bălgarskite arhivi, Sofia, Obedineni izdateli, 2013, 2 vol.

Giorgos Antoniou and A. Dirk Moses (eds.), The Holocaust in Greece, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Grinberg Natan, Dokumenti. Părvata kniga za deportiraneto na evreite ot Trakija, Makedonija i Pirot, Sofia, I.K. Gutenberg, 2015 [1945].

Haskell Guy H., From Sofia to Jaffa: The Jews of Bulgaria and Israel, Detroit (Mich.), Wayne State University Press, 1994.

Himka John-Paul and Michlic Joanna Beata (eds.), Bringing the Dark Past into Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe, Lincoln (Neb.), University of Nebraska Press, 2013.

Manoschek Walter, “Serbien ist judenfrei”: Militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung in Serbien 1941/42, Munich, Oldenbourg Verlag, 1993.

Matkovski Aleksandar, Tragedijata na evreite od Makedonija, Skopje, Kultura, 1962.

Matkovski Aleksandar, “The Destruction of the Macedonian Jewry in 1943,” Yad Vashem Studies, 3, 1959, 203-258.

Ragaru Nadège, Assignés à identités. Violence d’État et expériences minoritaires dans les Balkans post-ottomans, Istanbul, Les Éditions Isis, 2019.

Ragaru Nadège, “The Madding Clocks of Persecution: Anti-Jewish Policies in Bitola under Bulgarian occupation (1941-1944),” in: Xavier Bougarel, Hannes Grandits and Marija Vulesica (eds.), Reconsidering the History of the Second World War in Southeastern Europe, London, Routledge, 2019, 161-195.

Ragaru Nadège, “Bordering the Past: The Elusive Presences of the Holocaust in Socialist Macedonia and Socialist Bulgaria,” Südost-Forschungen, 76, 2017, 1-32.

Ragaru Nadège, “Nationalization through Internationalization. Writing, Remembering, and Commemorating the Holocaust in Macedonia and Bulgaria after 1989,” Südosteuropa. Journal of Politics and Society, 65 (2), 2017, 284-315.

Todorov Tzvetan (ed.), La Fragilité du bien. Le sauvetage des Juifs bulgares, Paris, Albin Michel, 1999.

Troebst Stefan, « Macedonian Historiography on the Holocaust in Macedonia under Bulgarian Occupation », Südosteuropäische Hefte, 2 (1), 2013, 107-114.

Troebst Stefan, « Salvation, Deportation or Holocaust? The Controversy over the Fate of Bulgaria’s Jews in World War II – before and after 1989 », in Muriel Blaive, Christian Gerbel, Thomas Lindenberger (eds), Clashes in European Memory. The Case of Communist Repression and the Holocaust, Innsbruck, StudienVerlag, 2011, 37-52.

 

A caricature by Marco Behar, a Jewish Bulgarian artist, from the December 7, 1944 issue of Evrejski Vesti. This newspaper was published by the Jewish Section of the Homeland Front, a coalition dominated by the Communist Party of Bulgaria. The caption read “Changing roles”.

 

Cover of Evrejski Vesti (Jewish News), March 16, 1945. This issue included a summary of attestations by witnesses in the framework of the prosecution for anti-Jewish crimes at the 7th Chamber of the People’s Tribunal.

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
A History of Knowledge about the Holocaust in Bulgaria
/

The Armenian Genocide and Property Usurpation in Aintab

With Ümit Kurt

Hosted by Zeynep Ertuğrul and Andreas Guidi

 

A prominent Armenian family deported and perished in 1915. Source: Mihran Minassian Private Collection.

 

The Armenian community of Aintab, nowadays Gaziantep, was among the most flourishing of Ottoman Anatolia. The Armenian Genocide not only brought an end to the community’s coexistence with the Muslim population but also paved the way to the pillage and usurpation of Armenian houses and shops. In this episode, we discuss the characteristics of the community in Aintab and the upsurge of violence in 1915. While addressing the implications of researching this sensitive topic, we focus on the role of local perpetrators as well as the broader juridical configuration which prevented the return of Armenian survivors and legalized material usurpation by local Muslim families.

Ümit Kurt is a Research Fellow at Polonsky Academy in the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute teaching in the Department of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Ümit is also Vice Executive Secretary of the International Network of Genocide Scholars (INoGS). He has published widely on the history of the late Ottoman Empire with a particular focus on the transformations of the imperial structures and their role in constituting the republican regime which he researches and teaches grounded on theories of state and class, social identity, and ethnicity. (Photo Credit: Hüseyin Ovayolu)

 

https://www.hup.harvard.edu/images/jackets/9780674247949-lg.jpg

To cite this episode: Ümit Kurt, Zeynep Ertuğrul, Andreas Guidi (2021): The Armenian Genocide and Property Usurpation in Aintab. The Southeast Passage #039, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/kurt-armenian-aintab-genocide/.

 

Music:

Hicham Chahidi: “Sweet Armenia

Zabel Panosian: “Groung” (Source: BNF Gallica)

Background: Duduk and Santur (by Peyman Heydarian) (Source: https://freesound.org/)

 

Further reading:

Akçam, T., The Young Turks’ Crime against Humanity: the Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire, Princeton University Press, 2012.

Akçam, T.; Kurt, Ü., The Spirit of the Laws: The Plunder of Wealth in the Armenian Genocide, Berghahn Books, 2012.

Bloxham, D., The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians, Oxford University Press, 2005.

Dadrian, V. N., History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus, Berghahn Books, 2003.

Dündar, F, Crime of Numbers: The Role of Statistics in the Armenian Question (1878-1918), Transaction Publishers, 2010.

Ekmekçioğlu, L, Recovering Armenia: The Limits of Belonging in Post-Genocide Turkey, Stanford University Press, 2016.

Gaunt, D, Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.

Gross, J.T., Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland.

Harootunian, H., The Unspoken as Heritage:T he Armenian Genocide and Its Unaccounted Lives, Duke University Press, 2019.

Hovannisian, R. (ed.), The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies, Transaction Publishers, 2007.

Hovannisian, R., ed. Looking backward, moving forward : confronting the Armenian Genocide, Transaction Publishers, 2003.

Kaiser, H., The Extermination of Armenians in the Diarbekir Region, Istanbul Bilgi University Press, 2014.

Kévorkian, R., The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History, I.B. Tauris, 2011.

Kieser, H. et al. (eds.), World War I and the End of the Ottomans: From the Balkan Wars to the Armenian Genocide, I.B. Tauris, 2015.

Morris, B. ; Ze’evi D, The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey’s Destruction of its Christian Minorities, 1894-1924, Harvard University Press, 2019.

Mouradian, K., The Resistance Network. The Armenian Genocide and Humanitarianism in Ottoman Syria, 1915-1918, Michigan State University Press, 2021.

Suakjian, K. Y., Genocide in Trebizond: A Case Study of Armeno-Turkish Relations during the First World War, University of Nebraska Press, 1981.

Suny, R, They can live in the Desert but nowhere else: A History of the Armenian Genocide, Princeton University Press, 2015.

Suny, R. G., F. M. Goçek, and N. Naimark (eds.), A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Türkyılmaz, Y., “Rethinking Genocide: Violence and Victimhood in Eastern Anatolia, 1913-1915”, Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 2011.

Üngör, U. U., The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913-1950, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Panoramic view of Aintab in the late 19t century. Source: Mihran Minassian Private Collection.

Kaza Nazar Ağa’s former House. Source: Gaziantep Kent Arşivi, Fotoğraf ve Kartpostal Koleksiyonu.

Aintab civil and military elites who actively participated in deportation, massacres and looting. Source: Gaziantep Kent Arşivi, Fotoğraf ve Kartpostal Koleksiyonu.

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
The Armenian Genocide and Property Usurpation in Aintab
/

#038 – German Resettlers and Jewish Survivors from Bukovina after 1945

With Gaëlle Fisher

At the crossroad of Bukovinans Street and Radauti Street, Stuttgart. Courtesy of Gaelle Fisher.

 

Before World War II, Bukovina was a region marked by multiconfessional coexistence and ruled by the Habsburg Empire (1774-1918) and then by Romania (1918-1940). Two among Bukovina’s population groups, the “ethnic” Germans and the Askhenazi Jews, left the region as a result of the World War and the Holocaust. Thousands of the former were “resettled” in Germany, while a great number of the latter who had survived the persecutions immigrated to Israel. In this episode, we discuss how both groups maintained a link with their homeland region, how they organized into voluntary associations, and how their destiny became interwoven when negotiating the limits of belonging to the respective national societies.

 

 

Gaëlle Fisher is a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Holocaust Studies, Leibniz Institute for Contemporary History in Munich, Germany. Her work explores the entangled histories of Germany, Eastern Europe, and Israel in the twentieth century. Her current research is for a second book dealing with Jewish responses to persecution in Romania during the Holocaust.

 

BERGHAHN BOOKS : Resettlers And Survivors: Bukovina And The Politics Of Belonging In West Germany And Israel, 1945–1989

To cite this episode: Gaëlle Fisher, Andreas Guidi (2021): German Resettlers and Jewish Survivors from Bukovina after 1945. The Southeast Passage #038, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/fisher-bukovina-german-jews

 

Music:

RecKlez: “Kallarash Freylekhs”

Natfule Brandwein: “Das Teurste in Bukowina”

 

Further reading:

Ahonen, Pertti, After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe 1945–1990 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Ballinger, Pamela: The World Refugees made. Decolonization and the making of Post-War Italy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2020)

Demshuk, Andrew, The Lost German East: Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Fisher, Gaëlle and Maren Röger (eds), “Bukovina and Bukovinians after the Second World War: (Re)shaping and (re)thinking a region after genocide and ‘ethnic unmixing,” East European Politics and Societies vol. 33, no. 1 (2019): 176–256

Fulbrook, Mary, Reckonings: Legacies of Nazi Persecution and the Quest for Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018)

Hausleitner, Mariana, ,Viel Mischmasch mitgenommen’: Die Umsiedlungen aus der Bukowina 1940 (Berlin: Verlag Walter de Gruyter, 2018)

Heymann, Florence, Le Crépuscule des Lieux: Identités Juives de Czernowitz (Paris: Stock, 2003)

Hirsch, Marianne and Leo Spitzer, Ghosts of Home: The Afterlife of Czernowitz in Jewish Memory (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010)

Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona, Frames of Remembrance: The Dynamics of Collective Memory (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1994)

Niven, Bill and Stefan Berger (eds) Writing the History of Memory (London: Bloomsbury, 2014)

Röger, Maren and Alexander Weidle (eds), Bukowina-Deutsche. Erfindungen, Erfahrungen und Erzählungen einer (imaginierten) Gemeinschaft seit 1775 (Munich: De Gruyter, 2020)

Steinweis, Alan and Daniel Rogers (eds), The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and its Legacy (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2003)

Yablonka, Hanna, Holocaust Survivors: Israel after the War (New York: New York University Press, 1999)

Zertal, Idith, From Catastrophe to Power: Holocaust Survivors and the Emergence of Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)

Michael Rothberg, Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009)

Zakic, Mirna and Chris Molnar (eds), German-Balkan Entangled Histories in the Twentieth Century (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 2020)

 

A 1949 issue of Die Stimme des Oleh (The Immigrant’s Voice), printed by the Association of Immigrants from Bukovina from 1944 onwards in Tel-Aviv. Courtesy of Gaelle Fisher.

 

A 1974 issue of Der Südostdeutsche (The Southeast-German), printed by the Bukovina Germans’ Landsmannschaft in Munich from 1949 onwards. Courtesy of Gaelle Fisher.

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#038 - German Resettlers and Jewish Survivors from Bukovina after 1945
/

#037 – Hunger and War during the Italian Occupation of Greece

with Paolo Fonzi

A 1941 cartoon from the newspaper “The Manchester Dispatch”, mocking Mussolini’s dependency on Hitler to defeat Greece

 

In the spring of 1941, after a brief war ending in an embarrassing retreat for Italy one year earlier, Mussolini’s troops supported by Nazi Germany occupied various regions of Greece. In Fascist Italy’s vision of a Mediterranean empire, Greece had a pivotal place, but several defeats on other war fronts led to the collapse of Italy’s ambitions and the occupation ended in 1943. In this installment, we discuss this World War II occupation through the prism of food scarcity and famine. Despite its brevity, the occupation caused a humanitarian catastrophe, and the question of food supply also complicated the Italian authorities’ control over the territory. The episode focuses on aspects related to gender, ethnic engineering, and violence to illustrate how food shortages shaped the interactions between occupying troops and the local population, but also the hierarchies within the latter.

 

 

Paolo Fonzi is Adjunct Professor in Contemporary History at the University of Eastern Piedmont. His fields of expertise include the history of Fascism with a particular focus on the Axis occupation policies. He has investigated the Nazi currency policy in occupied Europe during WWII and the Italian occupation policies in the Balkans with two monographs, one dedicated to Greece between 1941 and 1943 and another, broader in scope, on the occupation of Albania, Yugoslavia, Greece, but also France and the USSR, during WWII.

 

 

 

Fame di guerra. L'occupazione italiana della Grecia (1941-43) - Paolo Fonzi - Libro - Carocci - Studi storici Carocci | IBS

 

To cite this episode: Paolo Fonzi, Andreas Guidi (2021): Hunger and War during the Italian Occupation of Greece. The Southeast Passage #037, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/hunger-war-italian-occupation-greece

 

Sound Effects:

BBC Sound Archive: Air Raid Siren, Soldiers Marching.

Music:

Antonis Nasis and Thanos Bouris: “Koroido Mousolini” (Mussolini the Sucker).

To know more about Antonis and Thanos’s music, visit the “Cherchez la femme: Rebetiko quartet” website.

Stelios Perpiniadis: “Akou Ntoutse mou ta nea” (Hear the news, my Duce).

English translation of Perpiniadis’s lyrics:

Hear the news, my Duce

With a smile on their lips,
Our soldiers march forward
And the Italians have become a ridicule
Because their hearts aren’t brave enough

Mussolini, you fool
None of you will be left standing
You and Italy,
Your ridiculous country,
Are all afraid of the khaki color

You have no honor
And when we march in,
Even in Rome, we will raise,
The Greek, blue and white flag

It’s raining and they’re under the tent
They’re not taking a step forward
And they are announcing,
That the weather is to blame

Mussolini, you fool
None of you will be left standing
You and Italy,
Your ridiculous country,
Are all afraid of the khaki color

You have no honor
And when we march in,
Even in Rome, we will raise,
The Greek, blue and white flag.

Further reading:

Clementi, M. (2013). Camicie nere sull’Acropoli. L’occupazione italiana in Grecia (1941-1943). Roma, DeriveApprodi.

Dreidoppel, K. (2009). Der griechische Dämon. Widerstand und Bürgerkrieg im besetzten Griechenland 1941-1944. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz.

Etmektsoglou, G. (1997). “Changes in the Civilian Economy as a Factor in the Radicalization of Popular Opposition in Greece, 1941-1944”, in Die “Neuordnung” Europas: NS-Wirtschaftspolitik in den besetzten Gebieten. R. J. Overy. Berlin, Metropol: 193-240.

Fleischer, H. (1986). Im Kreuzschatten der Mächte. Griechenland 1941-1944 (Okkupation – Resistance – Kollaboration). Frankfurt am Main/Bern/New York, Peter Lang.

Fleischer, H. (1998). „Die »Viehmenschen« und das »Sauvolk«. Feindbilder einer dreifachen Okkupation: Der Fall Griechenland“, in Kultur, Propaganda, Öffentlichkeit : Intentionen deutscher Besatzungspolitik und Reaktionen auf die Okkupation. W. Benz, G. Otto, A. Weismann and O. Wolfgang. Berlin, Metropol: 135-170.

Fonzi, P. (2018). “Italian occupation of Crete during the Second World War. A view from below”, in Italy in the Second World War: Alternative Perspectives, ed. by Emanuele Sica and Richard Carrier, Leiden, Brill, pp. 51-75.

Fonzi, P. (2019). “Heirs of the Roman Empire? Aromanians and the Fascist Occupation of Greece, 1941-1943”, in Xavier Bougarel. Maria Vulesica, and Hannes Grandits (eds.), Local Dimensions of The Second World War in Southeastern Europe, London, Routledge, pp. 27-49.

Gerlach, C. (2000). Kalkulierte Morde: Die deutsche Wirtschafts- und Vernichtungspolitik in Weißrußland 1941 bis 1944, Hamburg, Hamburger.

Hionidou, V. (2006). Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941-1944, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hionidou, V. (2013). “Relief and Politics in Occupied Greece, 1941–4.” Journal of Contemporary History 48 (4): 761-783.

Kalogrias, V. (2008). Okkupation, Widerstand und Kollaboration in Makedonien, Mainz, Ruhpolding Rutzen.

Kalyvas, S. N. (2008). “Armed collaboration in Greece, 1941-1944.” European Review of History 15(2): 129-142.

Manta, E. K. (2008). Muslim Albanians in Greece. The Chams of Epirus (1923-2000). Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies.

Mazower, M. (1992). “Military Violence and National Socialist Values: The Wehrmacht in Greece 1941–1944.” Past and Present 134: 129-158.

Mazower, M. (1993). Inside Hitler’s Greece. The experience of occupation 1941-44. New Haven/London, Yale University Press.

Rodogno, D. (2006). Fascism’s European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Scott, J.C. (1987). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven/London, Yale University Press.

Vervenioti, T. (1994). I ginaika tis antistasis: I eisodos ton ginaikon stin politiki. Athina, Odysseas.

 

 

Italian troops take over the control of Athens from their German allies after the invasion of Greece, june 1941 (Istituto LUCE)

 

Corpses transported through the streets of Athens in the Winter of 1941-1942 (Wikimedia Commons)

 

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#037 - Hunger and War during the Italian Occupation of Greece
/

#036 – Political Opposition from the Ottoman Empire to Republican Turkey

with Christine Philliou

hosted by Zeynep Ertugrul and Jovo Miladinovic

 

Portrait of Refik Halit Karay in Aleppo (1928). Courtesy of the Taha Toros Archive

Refik Halid Karay was a satirical writer whose life can help us rethink the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey. After 1908, Refik Halid opposed the regime established by the Committee of Union and Progress while remaining a staunch believer of constitutionalism and of a multi-confessional imperial polity. This also provoked a conflict between him and the nationalists gathered around Mustafa Kemal in the aftermath of World War I. Shortly after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the government forced hin into exile. Through his biography, we discuss the Turkish notion of muhalefet, which refers to opposition and dissent within the margins of the political system.

 

 

Christine Philliou is associate professor of history at the University of California, Berkeley. She specializes in the political and social history of the Ottoman Empire and modern Greece and Turkey. Her first book, Biography of an Empire: Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution (University of California Press, 2011), examined the changes in Ottoman governance resulting from the Greek Revolution and leading up to the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-nineteenth century. She is currently working on a book project on post-Ottoman Greece and Turkey. Her new monograph, discussed in this podcast, is entitled Turkey: A Past against History and it is out at University of California Press.

Book Cover, Turkey: A Past Against History

 

To cite this episode: Christine Philliou, Zeynep Ertugrul, Jovo Miladinovic (2021): Political Opposition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republican Turkey. The Southeast Passage #036, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/philliou-political-opposition-ottoman-empire-republican-turkey/

Music:

Seyyan Hanım: “Yıldızların Altında”

İbrahim Özgür: “Neden”

 

Further reading:

Karay, Refik Halid, Minelbab İlelmihrab (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Kirpinin Dedikleri. (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Memleket Hikayeleri. (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Guguklu Saat (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Zürcher, Erik Jan, The Unionist Factor: The Role of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement, 1905-1926 (Leiden: Brill 1984)<

Zürcher, Erik Jan, Political Opposition in the Early Turkish Republic: The Progressive Republican Party, 1924-5 (Leiden: Brill, 1991)

Ahmad, Feroz, Young Turks: The Committee for Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969)

Koroglu, Erol, Ottoman Propaganda and Turkish Identity: Literature in Turkey during World War I (London: I.B. Tauris, 2007)

Ozoglu, Hakan, From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic (Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2011)

Birinci, Ali, Tarihin Alacakaralığında : Meşahiri Meçhuleden Birkaç Zat (İstanbul: Dergah, 2010)

 

Refik Halid as general director of the Post and Telegraph Service(1919/1920). Courtesy of the Taha Toros Archive.

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#036 - Political Opposition from the Ottoman Empire to Republican Turkey
/

#035 – Ottoman Port Cities of the Modern Mediterranean

with Malte Fuhrmann

hosted by Andreas Guidi and Zeynep Ertugrul for a joint release with Ottoman History Podcast

(Steamers, row and sailing boats on the Istanbul Golden Horn, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul)

 

At the turn of the twentieth century, Ottoman port cities of the Eastern Mediterranean were sites of vibrant cultural encounters. While infrastructural innovations at docks and quays reshaped the urban waterfront, the inhabitants of Izmir, Istanbul, and Salonica engaged with new forms of entertainment arriving from Europe. Operas, balls, and beerhouses changed the way people mingled and interpreted coexistence and diversity in their urban environment. Migrants from Europe and from the hinterlands of major port cities created an original form of Ottoman Mediterranean modernity. This cosmopolitan urban culture was alluring and festive but also had its discontents, who denounced it as decadent and servile to European imperialism. Exploring the everyday life of late Ottoman port cities reveals an effervescent lapse of time in which notions such as modernity, Europe, empire, and nation could be experienced in manifold ways, before the major conflicts of the twentieth century gave a fatal blow to Mediterranean urban diversity.

 

 

Malte Fuhrmann is a research fellow at the Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient in Berlin specializing in the history of the Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, and Southeast Europe. Besides Port Cities of the Eastern Mediterranean: Urban Culture in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2020) he has published numerous articles, edited volumes, and monographs, including Konstantinopel – Istanbul. Stadt der Sultane und Rebellen (Constantinople – Istanbul: City of Sultans and Rebels), Frankfurt (M.): Fischer 2019, and The City in the Ottoman Empire: Migration and the Making of Urban Modernity, London: Routledge 2011, a volume edited together with Ulrike Freitag, Nora Lafi, Florian Riedler. Malte is currently working on a comparison of development discourse in modern Bulgaria and Turkey.

 

 

 

New book by Malte Fuhrmann examines the history of Eastern Mediterranean port cities

 

To cite this episode: Malte Fuhrmann, Zeynep Ertugrul, Andreas Guidi (2021): Ottoman Port Cities of the Modern Mediterranean. The Southeast Passage #035, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/fuhrmann-ottoman-port-cities-modern-mediterranean

 

Sounds effects:

A quiet seaside seagulls distant“,  “Waves at the edge of Bosphorus”, “Bbc News Sound Effects Tape (Old) – boat – ships sirens”, “A night in Athens”.

 

Music:

Turku: “Bir demet Yasemen”

Maria Papagika: “Ti se melei esenane”

Further reading:

Anastassiadou, Meropi, Salonique 1830–1912: Une ville ottomane à l’âge des réformes (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

Eldem, Edhem; Daniel Goffmann, and Bruce Alan Masters (eds.),The Ottoman City between East and West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Georgelin, Hervé, La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes (Paris: CNRS, 2005).

Eren, Ercan, Geçmişten Günümüze Anadolu’da Bira (Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı, 2005).

Mestyan, Adam, Arab Patriotism: The Ideology and Culture of Power in Late Ottoman Egypt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017).

Kaynar, Erdal, “Les jeunes Turques et l’Occident, histoire d’une deception programmée,” in François Georgeon (ed.), ‘L’ivresse de la liberté’: La revolution de 1908 dans l’Empire Ottoman (Paris: Peeters, 2012), 27–65.

Kechriotis, Vangelis, “Civilization and Order: Middle-Class Morality among the Greek-Orthodox in Smyrna/Izmir at the End of the Ottoman Empire,” in Andreas Lyberatos (ed.), Social Transformation and Mass Mobilization in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean Cities 1900–1923 (Heraklion: Panepistimio Kritis, 2013), 115–132.

Mishra, Pankaj, Age of Anger: A History of the Present (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, (2017).

Prange, Martine, “Cosmopolitan Roads to Culture and the Festival Road of Humanity,” Ethical Perspectives 14 (3/2007), 269–286.

Schmitt, Oliver Jens, Levantiner: Lebenswelten und Identitäten einer ethnokonfessionellen Gruppe im osmanischen Reich im “langen 19. Jahrhundert” (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2005).

Smyrnelis, Marie-Carmen, Une société hors de soi: Identités et relations sociales à Smyrne aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles (Paris: Peeters, 2005).

 

(Lighter boats, porters, and passersby in front of the Izmir Customs House, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul)

 

(An 1898 postcard of Salonica printed by the city’s German association, featuring the modern quays. Courtesy of Malte Fuhrmann)

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#035 - Ottoman Port Cities of the Modern Mediterranean
/

#034 – Being a Musician in Germany, 1850-1960

with Martin Rempe

military band germany rempe podcast

A military band from Germany, 1913 (Wikimedia Commons)

A few countries can boast a musical heritage comparable to Germany’s. Yet, this tradition was made possible by rank-and-file musicians, whose position in society was far from stable and acknowledged. In this episode, we discuss a history of music in Germany “from below”. Applying the triad art, play, and work to music as an unresolved matrix to unpack what is often considered a “creative” category, we link the experience and perceptions of musicians to German political history and the musicians’ struggle for recognition. In the second part of the conversation, we approach the gendered dimension of musical professionalisation, the impact of musicians’ mobility on “national” traditions, and the challenges posed by new technologies to making a living with music.

 

 

Martin Rempe is a historian of Modern European and Global History. Currently, he is funded by the DFG Heisenberg Program and hosted by the University of Konstanz. Besides, he is a permanent visiting lecturer at the University of St. Gallen. He holds a PhD from Humboldt University, Berlin and habilitated at the University of Konstanz in 2017. He was fellow at the Free University Berlin, at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, and at the Deutsches Museum, Munich. His first monograph is entitled “Entwicklung im Konflikt. Die EWG und der Senegal, 1957–1975” (Böhlau: 2012) and he has co-edited volumes on regionalism in Africa and on musical communication in the 20th century. Martin’s latest book “Kunst, Spiel, Arbeit. Musikerleben in Deutschland, 1850 bis 1960″, has been published with Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in the series Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft. His next book project aims at a global history of the complex interrelationships between military music and society in the long nineteenth century.

 

rempe kunst spiel arbeit podcast

 

To cite this episode: Martin Rempe, Andreas Guidi (2020): Being a Musician in Germany, 1850-1960. The Southeast Passage #034, 22.09.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/rempe-musician-germany-1850-1960/

 

Music:

Royal Festival Hall: Full orchestra tuning (BBC Sound Archive)

Saxophone-Orchestra Dobri: Tausend Worte Liebe (One thousand words of love, 1929 recording)

The Saxophone-Orchestra Dobri was among the most popular in the Weimar Republic (1918-1933). His conductor Otto Dobrindt pursued a career in the Third Reich within Radio Germany (Deutschlandsender). After World War Two, Dobrindt was employed by the Berliner Rundfunk in the Soviet occupied zone and later in the GDR until his death in 1963.

The opening quote is read by Max Friedrich.

 

Further reading:

Applegate, Celia, and Pamela Potter, eds. Music and German National Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Applegate, Celia. The Necessity of Music: Variations on a German Theme.  Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2017.

Banks, Mark. Creative Justice: Cultural Industries, Work and Inequality.  London / New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.

Blanning, Timothy C. W. The Triumph of Music: The Rise of Composers, Musicians and Their Art.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2008.

Ehrlich, Cyril. The Music Profession in Britain since the Eighteenth Century. A Social History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

Florida, Richard. The rise of the creative class and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: basic Books, 2004.

Fuhrmann, Malte. “Down and Out on the Quays of İzmir: ‘European’ Musicians, Innkeepers, and Prostitutes in the Ottoman Port-Cities.”  Mediterranean Historical Review
Vol. 24, No. 2,  2009, 169–185.

Hoffmann, Freia. Instrument Und Körper. Die musizierende Frau in der bürgerlichen Kultur.  Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig: Insel taschenbuch, 1991.

Nathaus, Klaus. “Popular Music in Germany, 1900–1930: A Case of Americanisation? Uncovering a European Trajectory of Music Production into the Twentieth Century.” European Review of History – Revue européenne d’histoire 20, no. 5 (2013): 755–76.

Osterhammel, Jürgen. “Globale Horizonte Europäischer Kunstmusik, 1860–1930.” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 38, no. 1 (2012): 86–132.

Rempe, Martin. “Cultural Brokers in Uniform: The Global Rise of Military Musicians and Their Music.” Itinerario 41, no. 2 (2017): 327–52.

Wipplinger, Jonathan O. The Jazz Republic: Music, Race, and American Culture in Weimar Germany. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017.

 

rempe podcast germany music

A leaflet from 1929: “40.000 professional musicians are unemployed because of technology”

 

Postcard of the “Damenkappele Bundestreue”, ca. 1915

 

 

 

 

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#034 - Being a Musician in Germany, 1850-1960
/

#033 – How the Ottomans shaped the Modern World

with Alan Mikhail

Selim Piri Reis Podcast

Sultan Selim I and Piri Reis’s world map (1513) – collage based on Wikimedia commons

 

The Ottoman Empire was a key force in the making of the early modern world. Growing from a regional to a global player and to the most powerful Muslim empire at the turn of the 16th century, the role of the Ottomans has been largely neglected by Eurocentric narratives about the Atlantic explorations and the Reformation. This episode is based on Alan Mikhail’s new work “God’s Shadow: Sultan Selim, his Ottoman Empire, and the Making of the Modern World”. In the first part, we discuss the trajectory of Selim I, one of the most important sultans of the House of Osman, and the conflict with his father Bayezid. His life spans from military campaigns in Eastern Anatolia to crucial victories against the Mamluk Empire, which allowed Selim to officially become Caliph and leader of Sunni Islam. In the second part, we open a perspective on the global implications of imperial rivalries in the Mediterranean. Re-centering the Ottomans sheds light on how reactions to a powerful Muslim empire drove Columbus’s and other conquistadors’ worldview, which in turn lingered on in US-American self-perceptions and othering of Muslims and Native Americans.

 

Alan Mikhail is Professor of History at Yale University, where he also chairs the Department of History. He is a leading historian of the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East with a focus on Egypt in the early modern period. He has published grounbreaking studies on environmental and global history (see bibliography below) and his newest monograph, discussed in this podcast, is published by Liveright-Norton.

 

 

 

 

To cite this episode: Alan Mikhail, Andreas Guidi (2020): How the Ottomans shaped the Modern World. The Southeast Passage #033, 18.08.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/mikhail-ottomans-selim-modern-world/

 

 

 

Music:

The instrumental compositions in the background are a kind courtesy of Hasan Kiriş.

1. Tanbur Taksimi (Selim’s birth)

2. Etraflıca Yürümek (Selim and Bayezid)

3. Beyatiaraban Taksim (Selim and Piri Reis)

The excerpts from “God’s Shadow” are read by Harriet Walsh.

 

Further reading:

By Alan Mikhail

Nature and Empire in Ottoman Egypt an Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

“The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, no. 04 (2012): 721–45 (With Christine M. Philliou).

The Animal in Ottoman Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

“Ottoman Iceland: A Climate History.” Environmental History 20, no. 2 (2015): 262–84.

Under Osman’s Tree: The Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Environmental History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.

 

Çıpa, H. Erdem. The Making of Selim: Succession, Legitimacy, and Memory in the Early Modern Ottoman World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017.

Delaney, Carol Lowery. Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 2012.

Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Gomez, Michael A. Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gomez, Michael Angelo. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Peirce, Leslie P. The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Studies in Middle Eastern History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

 

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#033 - How the Ottomans shaped the Modern World







/

#032 – The Mediterranean viewed from the Southern Shore

with Jasmin Daam, Esther Möller, Cyrus Schayegh, and Selim Deringil

a joint release with Ottoman History Podcast

Swimming at the Corniche of Beirut, in the background: the Hôtel Saint-Georges, 1930s. © Fonds photographique René Zuber.

Modern Mediterranean history and Middle Eastern history rarely dialogue with each other. Whereas European ideas and practices of and in the Mediterranean have been studied thoroughly, only recently did researchers start to examine ideas and experiences through which actors on the Southern shore contributed to the making of the Mediterranean. In this episode, recorded during a conference in Beirut, we discuss the relevance of the Mediterranean in Arab ideas, institutions and identity constructions in the late Ottoman and post-Ottoman period. We focus on topics such as tourism in the Mandates, spatial transformations in the former Western Arab provinces after the demise of the Ottoman Empire, emigration on sea from the coast of Lebanon, and humanitarianism in Egypt after WWII. Through such diverse perspectives, the episode asks what a focus on the Southern shore might add to our perception of the Mediterranean “liquid continent”.

 

 

Jasmin Daam currently works for the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (German National Academic Foundation). Her main research interests concern colonial and global history, the history of the modern Middle East and North Africa, and cultural history with a focus on the history of travel and tourism. Having been a research and teaching assistant at the University of Kassel in the field of global history and the history of globalization processes, she has just submitted her Ph.D. dissertation on tourism and the formation of nation-states in the Arab Eastern Mediterranean in the 1920s and 1930s.

 

 

 

Esther Möller is a Visiting professor at the University of the German army in Munich with a focus on the cultural history of North Africa. After her first book on the history of French cultural policy in Lebanon in the first half of the twentieth century, she is now preparing a new book project on the history of humanitarian aid in the Arab world with a focus on Egypt in the second half of the twentieth century. Her research interests include global and transnational history, the history of colonial education, and the history of humanitarianism, human rights and humanitarian law in the Arab world.

 

 

 

Cyrus Schayegh is Professor of International History at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Before joining the Graduate Institute, he was Associate Professor at Princeton University and Assistant Professor at the American University of Beirut. His latest book The Middle East and the Making of the Modern World (Harvard University Press, 2017) not only presents a history of the modern Middle East, but also suggests a new methodological approach that allows an encompassing analysis of shifting spatial orders in the region of bilad al-sham.

 

 

 

Selim Deringil is Professor of History at the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. He published numerous books and articles on the cultural and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire, covering topics ranging from citizenship, the role of religion in the Ottoman Empire, to mobilities in the Mediterranean. His latest publication The Ottoman Twilight in the Arab Lands: Turkish Memoirs and Testimonies of the Great War (Academic Studies Press, 2019) sheds new light on the First World War in the Middle East and renders accessible previously unpublished sources to a wide audience.

 

 

To cite this episode: Daam, Jasmin; Möller, Esther; Schayegh, Cyrus; Deringil, Selim; Andreas Guidi (2020): The Mediterranean viewed from the Southern Shore. The Southeast Passage #032, 18.07.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/mediterranean-southern-shore/

 

Music:

Wajdi Abou Diab is a Lebanese pianist and composer who graduated in 2016 from the Lebanese National Conservatory of Music. We received the kind permission to use extracts from his Longa / Sama’i arrangements with piano accompaniment that aim to make an Arab repertoire of classical music available to occidental musicians and a worldwide audience.

Longa Nahawand – Jamil Bek Tanbouri
Longa Nahawand – Marcel Khalifeh
Longa Shahnaz – Adham Afandi
Samai’ Hijazkar – Antoine Zabita

 

Links:

– Questioning the Mediterranean: (Self-)Representations from the Southern Shore in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries – Beirut, 10-12 October 2019 – Conference Program
– Research Network “Modern Mediterranean: Dynamics of a World region 1800|2000” led by Manuel Borutta and funded by the DFG-German Research Foundation
– Wajdi Abou Diab’s Youtube Channel

 

Further reading:

al-Azmeh, Aziz, ‘The Mediterranean and Islam’, Approches historiographiques et perspectives de recherche, 2012, 58-71.

al-Kharrat, Edouard; Afifi, Mohamed, La Méditerranée égyptienne (Paris : Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000).

Bourguet, Marie-Noëlle, L’ invention scientifique de la Méditerranée: Égypte, Morée, Algérie (Paris: Éd. de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1998).

Burke III, Edmund, ‘Toward a Comparative History of the Modern Mediterranean, 1750-1919’, Journal of World History, 23/4 (2012), 907–39.

Horden, Peregrine, and Purcell, Nicholas, ‘The Mediterranean and “the New Thalassology”’, The American Historical Review, 111/3 (2006), 722–40.

Khalidi, Rashid, ‘The “Middle East” as a Framework of Analysis: Re-mapping a Region in the Era of Globalization’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, 18/1 (1998), 74¬–80.

Khater, Akram, Inventing home: Emigration, gender, and the middle class in Lebanon, 1870-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).

Khoury, Elias; Beydun, Ahmad, La Méditerranée libanaise (Paris : Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000).

Khuri-Makdisi, Ilham, The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

Schayegh, Cyrus, The Middle East and the Making of the Modern World (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017).

Tamari, Salim, ‘The Mountain against the Sea? Cultural Wars of the Eastern Mediterranean’, in Salim Tamari, Mountain Against the Sea. Essays on Palestinian Society and Culture (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009), 22–35.

Tucker, Judith E. (ed.), The Making of the Modern Mediterranean: Views from the South, University of California Press 2019.

Wick, Alexis, The Red Sea: In Search of Lost Space, University of California Press, 2016.

 

Aley postcard Mediterranean

Postcard of Aley, a village on Mount Lebanon, 1920s. © Fouad Debbas Collection, Album Sarrafian No.5 – 8596.

 

The Southeast Passage
The Southeast Passage
#032 - The Mediterranean viewed from the Southern Shore







/