#036 – Political Opposition from the Ottoman Empire to Republican Turkey

with Christine Philliou

hosted by Zeynep Ertugrul and Jovo Miladinovic


Portrait of Refik Halit Karay in Aleppo (1928). Courtesy of the Taha Toros Archive

Refik Halid Karay was a satirical writer whose life can help us rethink the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey. After 1908, Refik Halid opposed the regime established by the Committee of Union and Progress while remaining a staunch believer of constitutionalism and of a multi-confessional imperial polity. This also provoked a conflict between him and the nationalists gathered around Mustafa Kemal in the aftermath of World War I. Shortly after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the government forced hin into exile. Through his biography, we discuss the Turkish notion of muhalefet, which refers to opposition and dissent within the margins of the political system.



Christine Philliou is associate professor of history at the University of California, Berkeley. She specializes in the political and social history of the Ottoman Empire and modern Greece and Turkey. Her first book, Biography of an Empire: Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution (University of California Press, 2011), examined the changes in Ottoman governance resulting from the Greek Revolution and leading up to the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-nineteenth century. She is currently working on a book project on post-Ottoman Greece and Turkey. Her new monograph, discussed in this podcast, is entitled Turkey: A Past against History and it is out at University of California Press.

Book Cover, Turkey: A Past Against History


To cite this episode: Christine Philliou, Zeynep Ertugrul, Jovo Miladinovic (2021): Political Opposition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republican Turkey. The Southeast Passage #036, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/philliou-political-opposition-ottoman-empire-republican-turkey/


Seyyan Hanım: “Yıldızların Altında”

İbrahim Özgür: “Neden”


Further reading:

Karay, Refik Halid, Minelbab İlelmihrab (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Kirpinin Dedikleri. (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Memleket Hikayeleri. (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Karay, Refik Halid, Guguklu Saat (İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları 2009)

Zürcher, Erik Jan, The Unionist Factor: The Role of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement, 1905-1926 (Leiden: Brill 1984)<

Zürcher, Erik Jan, Political Opposition in the Early Turkish Republic: The Progressive Republican Party, 1924-5 (Leiden: Brill, 1991)

Ahmad, Feroz, Young Turks: The Committee for Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969)

Koroglu, Erol, Ottoman Propaganda and Turkish Identity: Literature in Turkey during World War I (London: I.B. Tauris, 2007)

Ozoglu, Hakan, From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic (Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2011)

Birinci, Ali, Tarihin Alacakaralığında : Meşahiri Meçhuleden Birkaç Zat (İstanbul: Dergah, 2010)


Refik Halid as general director of the Post and Telegraph Service(1919/1920). Courtesy of the Taha Toros Archive.

#035 – Ottoman Port Cities of the Modern Mediterranean

with Malte Fuhrmann

hosted by Andreas Guidi and Zeynep Ertugrul for a joint release with Ottoman History Podcast

(Steamers, row and sailing boats on the Istanbul Golden Horn, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul)


At the turn of the twentieth century, Ottoman port cities of the Eastern Mediterranean were sites of vibrant cultural encounters. While infrastructural innovations at docks and quays reshaped the urban waterfront, the inhabitants of Izmir, Istanbul, and Salonica engaged with new forms of entertainment arriving from Europe. Operas, balls, and beerhouses changed the way people mingled and interpreted coexistence and diversity in their urban environment. Migrants from Europe and from the hinterlands of major port cities created an original form of Ottoman Mediterranean modernity. This cosmopolitan urban culture was alluring and festive but also had its discontents, who denounced it as decadent and servile to European imperialism. Exploring the everyday life of late Ottoman port cities reveals an effervescent lapse of time in which notions such as modernity, Europe, empire, and nation could be experienced in manifold ways, before the major conflicts of the twentieth century gave a fatal blow to Mediterranean urban diversity.



Malte Fuhrmann is a research fellow at the Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient in Berlin specializing in the history of the Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, and Southeast Europe. Besides Port Cities of the Eastern Mediterranean: Urban Culture in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2020) he has published numerous articles, edited volumes, and monographs, including Konstantinopel – Istanbul. Stadt der Sultane und Rebellen (Constantinople – Istanbul: City of Sultans and Rebels), Frankfurt (M.): Fischer 2019, and The City in the Ottoman Empire: Migration and the Making of Urban Modernity, London: Routledge 2011, a volume edited together with Ulrike Freitag, Nora Lafi, Florian Riedler. Malte is currently working on a comparison of development discourse in modern Bulgaria and Turkey.




New book by Malte Fuhrmann examines the history of Eastern Mediterranean port cities


To cite this episode: Malte Fuhrmann, Zeynep Ertugrul, Andreas Guidi (2021): Ottoman Port Cities of the Modern Mediterranean. The Southeast Passage #035, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/fuhrmann-ottoman-port-cities-modern-mediterranean


Sounds effects:

A quiet seaside seagulls distant“,  “Waves at the edge of Bosphorus”, “Bbc News Sound Effects Tape (Old) – boat – ships sirens”, “A night in Athens”.



Turku: “Bir demet Yasemen”

Maria Papagika: “Ti se melei esenane”

Further reading:

Anastassiadou, Meropi, Salonique 1830–1912: Une ville ottomane à l’âge des réformes (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

Eldem, Edhem; Daniel Goffmann, and Bruce Alan Masters (eds.),The Ottoman City between East and West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Georgelin, Hervé, La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes (Paris: CNRS, 2005).

Eren, Ercan, Geçmişten Günümüze Anadolu’da Bira (Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı, 2005).

Mestyan, Adam, Arab Patriotism: The Ideology and Culture of Power in Late Ottoman Egypt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017).

Kaynar, Erdal, “Les jeunes Turques et l’Occident, histoire d’une deception programmée,” in François Georgeon (ed.), ‘L’ivresse de la liberté’: La revolution de 1908 dans l’Empire Ottoman (Paris: Peeters, 2012), 27–65.

Kechriotis, Vangelis, “Civilization and Order: Middle-Class Morality among the Greek-Orthodox in Smyrna/Izmir at the End of the Ottoman Empire,” in Andreas Lyberatos (ed.), Social Transformation and Mass Mobilization in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean Cities 1900–1923 (Heraklion: Panepistimio Kritis, 2013), 115–132.

Mishra, Pankaj, Age of Anger: A History of the Present (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, (2017).

Prange, Martine, “Cosmopolitan Roads to Culture and the Festival Road of Humanity,” Ethical Perspectives 14 (3/2007), 269–286.

Schmitt, Oliver Jens, Levantiner: Lebenswelten und Identitäten einer ethnokonfessionellen Gruppe im osmanischen Reich im “langen 19. Jahrhundert” (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2005).

Smyrnelis, Marie-Carmen, Une société hors de soi: Identités et relations sociales à Smyrne aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles (Paris: Peeters, 2005).


(Lighter boats, porters, and passersby in front of the Izmir Customs House, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul)


(An 1898 postcard of Salonica printed by the city’s German association, featuring the modern quays. Courtesy of Malte Fuhrmann)

#034 – Being a Musician in Germany, 1850-1960

with Martin Rempe

military band germany rempe podcast

A military band from Germany, 1913 (Wikimedia Commons)

A few countries can boast a musical heritage comparable to Germany’s. Yet, this tradition was made possible by rank-and-file musicians, whose position in society was far from stable and acknowledged. In this episode, we discuss a history of music in Germany “from below”. Applying the triad art, play, and work to music as an unresolved matrix to unpack what is often considered a “creative” category, we link the experience and perceptions of musicians to German political history and the musicians’ struggle for recognition. In the second part of the conversation, we approach the gendered dimension of musical professionalisation, the impact of musicians’ mobility on “national” traditions, and the challenges posed by new technologies to making a living with music.



Martin Rempe is a historian of Modern European and Global History. Currently, he is funded by the DFG Heisenberg Program and hosted by the University of Konstanz. Besides, he is a permanent visiting lecturer at the University of St. Gallen. He holds a PhD from Humboldt University, Berlin and habilitated at the University of Konstanz in 2017. He was fellow at the Free University Berlin, at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, and at the Deutsches Museum, Munich. His first monograph is entitled “Entwicklung im Konflikt. Die EWG und der Senegal, 1957–1975” (Böhlau: 2012) and he has co-edited volumes on regionalism in Africa and on musical communication in the 20th century. Martin’s latest book “Kunst, Spiel, Arbeit. Musikerleben in Deutschland, 1850 bis 1960″, has been published with Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in the series Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft. His next book project aims at a global history of the complex interrelationships between military music and society in the long nineteenth century.


rempe kunst spiel arbeit podcast


To cite this episode: Martin Rempe, Andreas Guidi (2020): Being a Musician in Germany, 1850-1960. The Southeast Passage #034, 22.09.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/rempe-musician-germany-1850-1960/



Royal Festival Hall: Full orchestra tuning (BBC Sound Archive)

Saxophone-Orchestra Dobri: Tausend Worte Liebe (One thousand words of love, 1929 recording)

The Saxophone-Orchestra Dobri was among the most popular in the Weimar Republic (1918-1933). His conductor Otto Dobrindt pursued a career in the Third Reich within Radio Germany (Deutschlandsender). After World War Two, Dobrindt was employed by the Berliner Rundfunk in the Soviet occupied zone and later in the GDR until his death in 1963.

The opening quote is read by Max Friedrich.


Further reading:

Applegate, Celia, and Pamela Potter, eds. Music and German National Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Applegate, Celia. The Necessity of Music: Variations on a German Theme.  Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2017.

Banks, Mark. Creative Justice: Cultural Industries, Work and Inequality.  London / New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.

Blanning, Timothy C. W. The Triumph of Music: The Rise of Composers, Musicians and Their Art.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2008.

Ehrlich, Cyril. The Music Profession in Britain since the Eighteenth Century. A Social History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

Florida, Richard. The rise of the creative class and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: basic Books, 2004.

Fuhrmann, Malte. “Down and Out on the Quays of İzmir: ‘European’ Musicians, Innkeepers, and Prostitutes in the Ottoman Port-Cities.”  Mediterranean Historical Review
Vol. 24, No. 2,  2009, 169–185.

Hoffmann, Freia. Instrument Und Körper. Die musizierende Frau in der bürgerlichen Kultur.  Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig: Insel taschenbuch, 1991.

Nathaus, Klaus. “Popular Music in Germany, 1900–1930: A Case of Americanisation? Uncovering a European Trajectory of Music Production into the Twentieth Century.” European Review of History – Revue européenne d’histoire 20, no. 5 (2013): 755–76.

Osterhammel, Jürgen. “Globale Horizonte Europäischer Kunstmusik, 1860–1930.” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 38, no. 1 (2012): 86–132.

Rempe, Martin. “Cultural Brokers in Uniform: The Global Rise of Military Musicians and Their Music.” Itinerario 41, no. 2 (2017): 327–52.

Wipplinger, Jonathan O. The Jazz Republic: Music, Race, and American Culture in Weimar Germany. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017.


rempe podcast germany music

A leaflet from 1929: “40.000 professional musicians are unemployed because of technology”


Postcard of the “Damenkappele Bundestreue”, ca. 1915





#033 – How the Ottomans shaped the Modern World

with Alan Mikhail

Selim Piri Reis Podcast

Sultan Selim I and Piri Reis’s world map (1513) – collage based on Wikimedia commons


The Ottoman Empire was a key force in the making of the early modern world. Growing from a regional to a global player and to the most powerful Muslim empire at the turn of the 16th century, the role of the Ottomans has been largely neglected by Eurocentric narratives about the Atlantic explorations and the Reformation. This episode is based on Alan Mikhail’s new work “God’s Shadow: Sultan Selim, his Ottoman Empire, and the Making of the Modern World”. In the first part, we discuss the trajectory of Selim I, one of the most important sultans of the House of Osman, and the conflict with his father Bayezid. His life spans from military campaigns in Eastern Anatolia to crucial victories against the Mamluk Empire, which allowed Selim to officially become Caliph and leader of Sunni Islam. In the second part, we open a perspective on the global implications of imperial rivalries in the Mediterranean. Re-centering the Ottomans sheds light on how reactions to a powerful Muslim empire drove Columbus’s and other conquistadors’ worldview, which in turn lingered on in US-American self-perceptions and othering of Muslims and Native Americans.


Alan Mikhail is Professor of History at Yale University, where he also chairs the Department of History. He is a leading historian of the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East with a focus on Egypt in the early modern period. He has published grounbreaking studies on environmental and global history (see bibliography below) and his newest monograph, discussed in this podcast, is published by Liveright-Norton.





To cite this episode: Alan Mikhail, Andreas Guidi (2020): How the Ottomans shaped the Modern World. The Southeast Passage #033, 18.08.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/mikhail-ottomans-selim-modern-world/





The instrumental compositions in the background are a kind courtesy of Hasan Kiriş.

1. Tanbur Taksimi (Selim’s birth)

2. Etraflıca Yürümek (Selim and Bayezid)

3. Beyatiaraban Taksim (Selim and Piri Reis)

The excerpts from “God’s Shadow” are read by Harriet Walsh.


Further reading:

By Alan Mikhail

Nature and Empire in Ottoman Egypt an Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

“The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, no. 04 (2012): 721–45 (With Christine M. Philliou).

The Animal in Ottoman Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

“Ottoman Iceland: A Climate History.” Environmental History 20, no. 2 (2015): 262–84.

Under Osman’s Tree: The Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Environmental History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.


Çıpa, H. Erdem. The Making of Selim: Succession, Legitimacy, and Memory in the Early Modern Ottoman World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017.

Delaney, Carol Lowery. Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 2012.

Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Gomez, Michael A. Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gomez, Michael Angelo. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Peirce, Leslie P. The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Studies in Middle Eastern History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.


#032 – The Mediterranean viewed from the Southern Shore

with Jasmin Daam, Esther Möller, Cyrus Schayegh, and Selim Deringil

a joint release with Ottoman History Podcast

Swimming at the Corniche of Beirut, in the background: the Hôtel Saint-Georges, 1930s. © Fonds photographique René Zuber.

Modern Mediterranean history and Middle Eastern history rarely dialogue with each other. Whereas European ideas and practices of and in the Mediterranean have been studied thoroughly, only recently did researchers start to examine ideas and experiences through which actors on the Southern shore contributed to the making of the Mediterranean. In this episode, recorded during a conference in Beirut, we discuss the relevance of the Mediterranean in Arab ideas, institutions and identity constructions in the late Ottoman and post-Ottoman period. We focus on topics such as tourism in the Mandates, spatial transformations in the former Western Arab provinces after the demise of the Ottoman Empire, emigration on sea from the coast of Lebanon, and humanitarianism in Egypt after WWII. Through such diverse perspectives, the episode asks what a focus on the Southern shore might add to our perception of the Mediterranean “liquid continent”.



Jasmin Daam currently works for the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (German National Academic Foundation). Her main research interests concern colonial and global history, the history of the modern Middle East and North Africa, and cultural history with a focus on the history of travel and tourism. Having been a research and teaching assistant at the University of Kassel in the field of global history and the history of globalization processes, she has just submitted her Ph.D. dissertation on tourism and the formation of nation-states in the Arab Eastern Mediterranean in the 1920s and 1930s.




Esther Möller is a Visiting professor at the University of the German army in Munich with a focus on the cultural history of North Africa. After her first book on the history of French cultural policy in Lebanon in the first half of the twentieth century, she is now preparing a new book project on the history of humanitarian aid in the Arab world with a focus on Egypt in the second half of the twentieth century. Her research interests include global and transnational history, the history of colonial education, and the history of humanitarianism, human rights and humanitarian law in the Arab world.




Cyrus Schayegh is Professor of International History at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Before joining the Graduate Institute, he was Associate Professor at Princeton University and Assistant Professor at the American University of Beirut. His latest book The Middle East and the Making of the Modern World (Harvard University Press, 2017) not only presents a history of the modern Middle East, but also suggests a new methodological approach that allows an encompassing analysis of shifting spatial orders in the region of bilad al-sham.




Selim Deringil is Professor of History at the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. He published numerous books and articles on the cultural and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire, covering topics ranging from citizenship, the role of religion in the Ottoman Empire, to mobilities in the Mediterranean. His latest publication The Ottoman Twilight in the Arab Lands: Turkish Memoirs and Testimonies of the Great War (Academic Studies Press, 2019) sheds new light on the First World War in the Middle East and renders accessible previously unpublished sources to a wide audience.



To cite this episode: Daam, Jasmin; Möller, Esther; Schayegh, Cyrus; Deringil, Selim; Andreas Guidi (2020): The Mediterranean viewed from the Southern Shore. The Southeast Passage #032, 18.07.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/mediterranean-southern-shore/



Wajdi Abou Diab is a Lebanese pianist and composer who graduated in 2016 from the Lebanese National Conservatory of Music. We received the kind permission to use extracts from his Longa / Sama’i arrangements with piano accompaniment that aim to make an Arab repertoire of classical music available to occidental musicians and a worldwide audience.

Longa Nahawand – Jamil Bek Tanbouri
Longa Nahawand – Marcel Khalifeh
Longa Shahnaz – Adham Afandi
Samai’ Hijazkar – Antoine Zabita



– Questioning the Mediterranean: (Self-)Representations from the Southern Shore in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries – Beirut, 10-12 October 2019 – Conference Program
– Research Network “Modern Mediterranean: Dynamics of a World region 1800|2000” led by Manuel Borutta and funded by the DFG-German Research Foundation
– Wajdi Abou Diab’s Youtube Channel


Further reading:

al-Azmeh, Aziz, ‘The Mediterranean and Islam’, Approches historiographiques et perspectives de recherche, 2012, 58-71.

al-Kharrat, Edouard; Afifi, Mohamed, La Méditerranée égyptienne (Paris : Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000).

Bourguet, Marie-Noëlle, L’ invention scientifique de la Méditerranée: Égypte, Morée, Algérie (Paris: Éd. de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1998).

Burke III, Edmund, ‘Toward a Comparative History of the Modern Mediterranean, 1750-1919’, Journal of World History, 23/4 (2012), 907–39.

Horden, Peregrine, and Purcell, Nicholas, ‘The Mediterranean and “the New Thalassology”’, The American Historical Review, 111/3 (2006), 722–40.

Khalidi, Rashid, ‘The “Middle East” as a Framework of Analysis: Re-mapping a Region in the Era of Globalization’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, 18/1 (1998), 74¬–80.

Khater, Akram, Inventing home: Emigration, gender, and the middle class in Lebanon, 1870-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).

Khoury, Elias; Beydun, Ahmad, La Méditerranée libanaise (Paris : Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000).

Khuri-Makdisi, Ilham, The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

Schayegh, Cyrus, The Middle East and the Making of the Modern World (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017).

Tamari, Salim, ‘The Mountain against the Sea? Cultural Wars of the Eastern Mediterranean’, in Salim Tamari, Mountain Against the Sea. Essays on Palestinian Society and Culture (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009), 22–35.

Tucker, Judith E. (ed.), The Making of the Modern Mediterranean: Views from the South, University of California Press 2019.

Wick, Alexis, The Red Sea: In Search of Lost Space, University of California Press, 2016.


Aley postcard Mediterranean

Postcard of Aley, a village on Mount Lebanon, 1920s. © Fouad Debbas Collection, Album Sarrafian No.5 – 8596.


#031 – History and memory of the Holocaust in Thessaloniki

with Leon Saltiel

Transport of Jews from the Ghetto in the Eastern part of Thessaloniki to the Baron Hirsch transit camp, via Egnatia street, April 9, 1943. The Jews can be seen in between two columns of onlookers who were watching the scene. The photo was taken from a balcony, where one can also see the father and sister of the photographer. (Archive of the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki)


In 1943, the almost entire Jewish population of Thessaloniki was arrested and deported to Nazi extermination camps. This tragic event marked an irrevocable rupture in the centuries-old history of the local Jewish community. In this episode, we discuss an innovative history of the Holocaust in Thessaloniki through the focus on interactions between Nazi occupiers, local Christian elites, the Jewish population, professional institutions, state and church authorities. Inspired by a plurality of sources, this approach is pioneering for the reflections it opens on the municipal dimension of the persecutions and the Holocaust, and how this has only recently become part of the city’s memory after decades of silence.



Leon Saltiel holds a PhD in Contemporary Greek History from the University of Macedonia in Thessaloniki and has received post-doctoral fellowships at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva and the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. His publications include The Holocaust in Thessaloniki: Reactions to the Anti-Jewish Persecution, 1942–1943 (Routledge 2020) and ‘Do Not Forget Me’: Three Jewish Mothers Write to their Sons from the Ghetto of Thessaloniki (Alexandria 2018). Leon has more than 15 years’ experience working on human rights issues around the world, the majority of which was working with the United Nations in Geneva.

Photo Credit: Shahar Azran


To cite this episode: Leon Saltiel, Andreas Guidi (2020): History and Memory of the Holocaust in Thessaloniki. The Southeast Passage #031, 18.06.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/saltiel-thessaloniki-holocaust/


Stella Haskil: Nichtose horis fengari (A moonless night fell)

Stella Haskil was a Jewish singer born in Thessaloniki in 1918. Already popular before WWII, she continued to perform songs in Greek and Ladino, including famous Rembetika, during the occupation, using her first name only. She survived the Holocaust and her most successful songs were recorded just after the war.

The introductory quote is read by Gabriel Doyle.

Further reading:

Antoniou, Giorgios and A. Dirk Moses, eds., The Holocaust in Greece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

Bowman, Steven ed., The Holocaust in Salonika: Eyewitness Accounts (Bloch Publishing Co., 2002)

Fleming, Katherine E. Greece: A Jewish History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010)

Mazower, Mark Salonica City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005) )

Molho, Michael and Joseph Nehama, In memoriam: hommage aux victimes juives des Nazis en Grèce (Thessaloniki, 1948–1953)

Naar, Devin E., Jewish Salonica: Between the Ottoman Empire and Modern Greece (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2016)

Nehama, Joseph Histoire des Israélites de Salonique (Thessaloniki: Jewish Community of Thessaloniki, 1978)

Pierron, Bernard, Juifs et chrétiens de la Grèce moderne (Paris: Editions l’Harmattan, 1996)

Stein, Sarah A., Family Papers: A Sephardic Journey through the Twentieth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux)


In Greek:

Antoniou, Giorgios, Stratos Dordanas, Nikos Zaikos, Nikos Marantzidis, ed., To Olokavtoma sta Valkania (Epikentro, Thessaloniki 2011)

Saltiel, Leon, ed., Min me Xehasete: Treis Evraies miteres grafoun stous gious tous apo to gketo tis Thessalonikis (Alexandreia, Athina 2018)

Yacoel, Yomtov Apomnimonevmata 1941-1943 (Paratiritis, Thessaloniki 1993)



Scene from the gathering of 8,500 Jewish men in Liberty Square to register for forced labor, Thessaloniki, July 11, 1942. (Bundesarchiv)


Article entitled “The Persecution of the Jews,” published in Megali Ellas [Great Greece], March 1943. It describes the deportation of the Jews of France.



#030 – Archives and Temporality in the 19th century

with Sina Steglich

J. W. M. Turner, Rain, steam, and speed (1844, Wikimedia Commons)

In the 19th century, technological innovations brought about new conceptions of time. The idea of modernity redefined the contemporaries’ relationship with the past. State institutions began a systematic reorganization of their archives, which started to function as the main repository of historical traces for scholars. At the same time, these sites were visited by broader population segments out of curiosity, familial matters, or simply a genuine fascination for past documents. In this episode, we discuss the interrelation of archives and temporality in Europe through the eyes of historians and state institutions.


Sina Steglich is a research fellow at the German Historical Institute London. She obtained her Ph.D. from the University of Mannheim in 2018 with a dissertation on the history of archival times in Fin-de-Siècle Europe. Her current postdoctoral project is entitled Nomadism as a Discursive Figure of Modernity. Her research interests include the history of time(s), archival history, the history of historiography as well as theory and methodology of history (especially intellectual and conceptual history).

Sina’s new book is entitled Zeitort Archiv – Etablierung und Vermittlung geschichtlicher Zeitlichkeit im 19. Jahrhundert (The Archive as Chronotype: The establishment and the diffusion of historical temporality in the 19th century), Campus Verlag, 2020.


To cite this episode:  Steglich, Sina; Guidi, Andreas (2020): Archives and Temporality in the 19th century. The Southeast Passage #030, 22.04.2020, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/steglich-archives-temporality


– Scherzo No 1 – F.Chopin (performed by N. Di Napoli)

Exzel Music Publishing (freemusicpublicdomain.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0

– Nocturne in E flat major, Op. 9 no. 2 – F. Chopin (performed by V. Chaimovich)


Further reading:

Anderson, Benedict: Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, New York, NY 2006.

Bakhtin, Mikhail: Forms of Time and the Chronotope in the Novel, in: Ibid.: The Dialogic Imagination, Austin, TX 1981, pp. 84-258.

Barak, On: On Time. Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt, Berkeley, CA 2013.

Bauman, Zygmunt: Modernity and Ambivalence, Cambridge et al 1993.

Conrad, Sebastian: „Nothing is the Way it Should be.“ Global Transformation of the Time Regime in the Nineteenth Century, in: Modern Intellectual History 15 (2018), pp. 821-848.

Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg: Leopold von Ranke’s Archival Turn. Location and Evidence in Modern Historiography, in: Modern Intellectual History 5 (2008), pp. 425-453.

Farge, Arlette: The Allure of the Archives, New Haven, CN 2013.

Fritzsche, Peter: Stranded in the Present. Modern Time and the Melancholy of History, Cambridge, MA, London 2004.

Landwehr, Achim: Die anwesende Abwesenheit der Vergangenheit. Essay zur Geschichtstheorie, Frankfurt am Main 2016.

Steglich, Sina: Vom Sichern der Zeit und Zeigen der Geschichte. Zum Archiv als Zeitgeber des Fin de Siècle, in: Historische Zeitschrift 305 (2017), pp. 689-716.

Steglich, Sina: Zeitort Archiv. Etablierung und Vermittlung geschichtlicher Zeitlichkeit im 19. Jahrhundert (=Historische Studien, Bd. 79), Frankfurt am Main, New York 2020.

Tamm, Marek/Laurent Olivier (Eds.): Rethinking Historical Time. New Approaches to Presentism, London et al 2019.

Wishnitzer, Avner: Reading Clocks, Alla Turca. Time and Society in the late Ottoman Empire, Chicago, IL, London 2015.



Delannoy, Le Musée des Archives de l’Empire (Université Paris Descartes)


Paris, National Archives (Photo by Sina Steglich)



#029 – A Transnational History of Kemalism

with Nathalie Clayer, Fabio Giomi, and Emmanuel Szurek



Cover of Munir Šahinović-Ekremov’s Turska, – danas i sjutra. Prosjek kroz život jedne države [Turkey today and tomorrow. Outline of a State’s life], 1939.


Kemalism as a political category has been used widely and often ambigously throughout the history of the Turkish Republic in the public discourse as well as in historiography. In this episode, we discuss Kemalism from an innovative transnational perspective. The making of Kemalism was embedded in hybridity and circulations involving other regions of the post-Ottoman space. Practices of governance, material objects, new conceptions of the body and gender roles, and scientific debates created a convergence of Islam and modernity which was influenced by external reference but also attracted observers from surrounding countries such as Albania, Yugoslavia and Egypt.



Nathalie Clayer (center) is a professor at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris.

Fabio Giomi (right) is a researcher at the French National Research Council (CNRS).

Emmanuel Szurek (left) is an associate professor at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris.

Nathalie, Fabio, and Emmanuel are members of the Center for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan and Central Asian Studies (CETOBaC). They are the editors of Kemalism. Transnational Politics in the Post-Ottoman World. London: Bloomsbury, 2018.

Table of contents:

Introduction: Transationalizing Kemalism: a Refractive Relationship, by Nathalie Clayer, Fabio Giomi, Emmanuel Szurek
Chapter 1: Kemalism and the Adoption of the Civil Code in Albania (1926-1929), by Nathalie Clayer
Chapter 2: Kemalism Between the Borders: Conflicts Over the New Turkish Alphabet in Bulgaria, by Anna M. Mirkova
Chapter 3: From Ottoman to Latin Script in Cyprus. A Local, a British Colonial and a Turkish National History, by Béatrice Hendrich
Chapter 4: Transnational History in a Hat: Egypt and Kemalism in the Interwar Years, by Wilson Chacko Jacob
Chapter 5: Seduced by Gender Corporatism: Muslim Cultural Entrepreneurs and Kemalist Turkey in Interwar Yugoslavia, Fabio Giomi
Chapter 6: Reframing the Orientalist Gaze in the Material Culture of Kemalist Turkey: The Formation of an “Aesthetic Nationalism”, by Ece Zerman
Chapter 7: The Man Sick of Europe. A Transnational History of Kemalist Science, by Emmanuel Szurek


To cite this episode:  Clayer, Nathalie; Giomi, Fabio; Szurek Emmanuel; Guidi, Andreas (2019): A transnational history of Kemalism. The Southeast Passage #029, 09.06.2019, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/clayer-giomi-szurek-transnational-history-kemalism



“Yanık Ömer”, performed by Bayan Safiye


Further reading:

Adak, Sevgi. 2014. ‘Women in the Post-Ottoman Public Sphere: Anti-Veiling Campaigns and the Gendered Reshaping of Urban Space in Early Republican Turkey’. Pp. 36–67 in Women and the City, Women in the City: A Gendered Perspective to Ottoman Urban History, edited by N. Maksudyan. New York: Berghahn Books.

Aytürk, İlker. 2009. ‘H. F. Kvergic and the Sun-Language Theory’. Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft 1(159):23–44.

Aytürk, İlker. 2015. ‘Post-Post-Kemalizm: Yeni Bir Paradigmayı Beklerken’. Birikim (319):34–48.

Bozarslan, Hamit. 2004. Histoire De La Turquie Contemporaine. Paris: Éd. La Découverte.

Georgeon, François and İskender Gökalp, eds. 1987. Kémalisme et Monde Musulman. Paris: Fondation de la Maison des sciences de l’homme.

Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü. 2011. Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Müller, Bertrand and Christian Jacob. 2009. ‘Les Lieux de Savoir : Un Entretien Avec Christian Jacob’. Geneses 76(3):116–36.

Parla, Taha and Andrew Davison. 2004. Corporatist Ideology in Kemalist Turkey. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Zürcher, Erik Jan. 2004. Turkey: A Modern History. 3rd ed. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris.


“Kemalist Turkey Hails Fascist Italy!” Cumhuriyet headline on the occasion of Prime Minister Ismet Inönü’s official visit to Rome (22 May 1932).


Cover of the Italian translation of Mustafa Kemal’s biography by Dagobert von Mikusch, a German journalist, firstly published in 1929.





Jean-François Pérouse: Istanbul Planète


Gabriel Doyle is a Ph.D. student in History at the Cetobac / EHESS in Paris. His research focuses on the spatial and material implications of diplomatic, missionary and philanthropic activity in late Ottoman Istanbul. His wider interests include global history, urban studies and social anthropology. Born in Paris from Australian parents, he likes to cycle in his hometown thinking about his new travel destination.




Jean-François Pérouse
Istanbul planète:  La ville-monde du XXIe siècle
Paris: La Découverte, 2017


Jean-François Pérouse’s latest book Istanbul-Planète is an ambitious project. The French geographer attempted to fit into two hundred pages several years of careful observation of Istanbul’s evolution into the major metropolis it has now become. The result is outstanding. The book is concise but carefully depicts the economic, political, environmental and social implications of Istanbul’s radical urbanization since the early 2000’s. By studying what has become an “urban monster”, Istanbul Planète introduces the reader to how the ruling party AKP functions on the ground, as well as to how a diverse urban population endures, resists, or reinvents a Megacity lifestyle.






“Bir Demet Yasemen” – Turku, Nomads of the Silk Road

Released under a Creative Commons 3.0 license


View of Istanbul by night and from the satellite, Wikimedia commons




#028 – Slavery and servitude in the Ottoman Mediterranean

with M’hamed Oualdi & Hayri Gökşin Özkoray



Joseph taken out of the well by Madianite merchants before getting sold into slavery.  Ḳalender Paşa (compilator), Fālnāme, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi [TSMK], Hazine, ms. n° 1703 (detail).

The Ottoman Mediterranean represented a space in which slave trade flourished. This phenomenon developed from pre-existing practices toward innovations brought about by a growing connectivity with other world regions and by a changing policy of territorial expansion. In this episode, we discuss the ambiguity between slavery and servitude in the case of the Mamluks of the Tunisian Beylik (18th-19th century). Moreover, we explore the complexity of economic processes, legal interpretations, and geographic routes which impacted the evolution of slave trade from the 16th century until abolition. Lastly, we reflect on chances and problems related to retracing the self and the narratives of those directly involved in the slave trade before and after manumission.


M’hamed Oualdi is an assistant professor at Princeton University (Near Eastern Studies department and History department). He is a historian of Early Modern and Modern North Africa, with a focus on slavery n Ottoman Tunisia and the shift from Ottoman rule to a French colonial domination in North African societies.  His current project deals with slave testimonies in 19th-century North Africa, when European and Ottoman states implemented the abolition of slavery around the Mediterranean.




Hayri Gökşin Özkoray is teaching assistant (ATER) at the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and associated member of the Center for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan and Centraol Asian Studies He has received a Ph.D in History from the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Paris).  Hayri Gökşin has worked on Ottoman captivity narratives in the early-modern Mediterranean and slavery in the Ottoman Empire. He pursues his research endeavours on Ottoman labour history and also is a fan of improvised and creative music.



To cite this episode: Oualdi, M’Hamed; Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin; Guidi, Andreas (2018): Slavery and servitude in the Ottoman Mediterranean. The Southeast Passage #028, 14.05.2018, http://thesoutheastpassage.com/podcast/oualdi-ozkoray-slavery-servitude-ottoman-mediterranean


  1. “Chekhlaâni Ya Farch Ennoum”, performed by Falida Khetmi, 1930s recording, BNF Gallica  
  2. “Cheghel Hssine: Malouf”, performed by Ahmed Ellouz, 1930s recording, BNF Gallica 

Further reading:

Ayalon, David: The Mamluk military society. London: Variorum Reprints, 1979.

Brunschvig, Robert: « ʿAbd », Encyclopedia of Islam (second edition). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960, vol. I, p. 25-41.

D’Ohsson, Mouradgea: Tableau général de l’Empire ottoman, divisé en deux parties, dont l’une comprend la législation mahométane ; l’autre, l’histoire de l’Empire ottoman [1788-1824]. Istanbul: Les Éditions Isis, 2001, 7 vols.

El Hamel, Chouki: Black Marocco: A history of slavery, race and Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Erdem, Y. Hakan: Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and its Demise, 1800-1909. London-New York: Macmillan Press, 1996.

Fynn-Paul, Jeffrey, « Empire, Monotheism and Slavery in the Greater Mediterranean Region from Antiquity to the Early Modern Era », Past and Present CCV, 2009, p. 3-40.

İnalcik, Halil: « Ghulām, IV. Empire ottoman », Encyclopedia of Islam (second edition). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965, vol. II, p. 1111-1117.

Ismard, Paulin: La Démocratie contre les experts: Les esclaves publics en Grèce ancienne. Paris: Seuil, 2015.

Klein, Martin A.: Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Kunt, İ. Metin: « Ethnic-Regional (Cins) Solidarity in the Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Establishment », International Journal of Middle East Studies V/3, 1974, p. 233-239.

Kunt, İ. Metin: « Kulların Kulları », Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Dergisi. Hümaniter Bilimler – Humanities III, 1975, p. 27-42.

Kunt, İ. Metin: The Sultan’s Servants. The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550-1650, New York, Columbia University Press, 1983 (The Modern Middle East Series 14).

Oualdi, M’hamed: Esclaves et maîtres. Les mamelouks des beys de Tunis du XVIIe siècle aux années 1880, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2011.

Oualdi, M’hamed: « Mamluks in Ottoman Tunisia: A Category Connecting State and Social Forces », International Journal of Middle East Studies 48/3, 2016, p. 473-490.

Oualdi, M’hamed: “Slave to Modernity? General Ḥusayn’s journey from Tunis to Tuscany (1830s-1880s).” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 60-1-2 (2017): 50-82.

Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin: « Une culture de la résistance ? Stratégies et moyens d’émancipation des esclaves dans l’Empire ottoman au XVIe siècle », in Hanss, Stefan and Schiel, Juliane (eds.), Mediterranean Slavery Revisited (500–1800) – Neue Perspektiven auf mediterrane Sklaverei (500–1800), Zurich, Chronos Verlag, 2014, p. 403-418.

Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin: « La géographie du commerce des esclaves dans l’Empire ottoman et l’implication des marchands d’Europe occidentale ». Rives méditerranéennes LIII : L’économie de l’esclavage en Méditerranée médiévale et moderne (Armenteros Martinez, Iván and Ourfelli, Mohamed, eds.), 2016, p. 103-121.

Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin:  L’esclavage dans l’Empire ottoman (XVIe-XVIIe siècle). Fondements juridiques, réalités socio-économiques, représentation. Ph.D. Thesis. Paris: EPHE, 2018.

Rinehart, Nicholas T.: « The Man That Was a Thing: Reconsidering Human Commodification in Slavery », Journal of Social History L/1, 2016, p. 28-50.

Sahillioğlu, Halil:  « Slaves in the social and economic life of Bursa in the late 15th and early 16th centuries », Turcica XVII, 1985, p. 43-112.

Toledano, Ehud R.: The Ottoman Slave Trade and its Suppression: 1840-1890, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982.

Toledano, Ehud R.: « Late Ottoman Concepts of Slavery (1830s-1880s) », Poetics Today XIV/3, 1993, p. 477-506.

Toledano, Ehud R.: Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1997.

Troutt Powell, Eve M., Tell This in My Memory. Stories of Enslavement from Egypt, Sudan and the Ottoman Empire, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2012.

Zilfi, Madeline C., Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire. The Design of Difference, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Muhammad al-Sādiq Bāshā Bey of Tunis and some of his mamluks (1860). Ksar al-Sa’id Museum, Tunis 

War captives brought before the tent of a pasha (ca. 1618-1622). Miniature attributed to Naḳşī. Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi (Istanbul), Hazine, ms. n° 889